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Structural Mutants of the Spindle Pole Body Cause Distinct Alteration of Cytoplasmic Microtubules and Nuclear Dynamics in Multinucleated Hyphae

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      Abstract

      To determine how microtubule (MT) nucleation and nuclear migration are controlled in multinucleated hyphae we deleted genes encoding MTOC subunits and AgStu2. The novel phenotypes we observed in these mutants compared with analogous deletions in budding yeast allowed us to assign functions to the two types of cMTs that we observe in A. gossypii.

      Abstract

      In the multinucleate fungus Ashbya gossypii, cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) emerge from the spindle pole body outer plaque (OP) in perpendicular and tangential directions. To elucidate the role of cMTs in forward/backward movements (oscillations) and bypassing of nuclei, we constructed mutants potentially affecting cMT nucleation or stability. Hyphae lacking the OP components AgSpc72, AgNud1, AgCnm67, or the microtubule-stabilizing factor AgStu2 grew like wild- type but showed substantial alterations in the number, length, and/or nucleation sites of cMTs. These mutants differently influenced nuclear oscillation and bypassing. In Agspc72Δ, only long cMTs were observed, which emanate tangentially from reduced OPs; nuclei mainly moved with the cytoplasmic stream but some performed rapid bypassing. Agnud1Δ and Agcnm67Δ lack OPs; short and long cMTs emerged from the spindle pole body bridge/half-bridge structures, explaining nuclear oscillation and bypassing in these mutants. In Agstu2Δ only very short cMTs emanated from structurally intact OPs; all nuclei moved with the cytoplasmic stream. Therefore, long tangential cMTs promote nuclear bypassing and short cMTs are important for nuclear oscillation. Our electron microscopy ultrastructural analysis also indicated that assembly of the OP occurs in a stepwise manner, starting with AgCnm67, followed by AgNud1 and lastly AgSpc72.

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      Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids.

      Factors that affect the probability of genetic transformation of Escherichia coli by plasmids have been evaluated. A set of conditions is described under which about one in every 400 plasmid molecules produces a transformed cell. These conditions include cell growth in medium containing elevated levels of Mg2+, and incubation of the cells at 0 degrees C in a solution of Mn2+, Ca2+, Rb+ or K+, dimethyl sulfoxide, dithiothreitol, and hexamine cobalt (III). Transformation efficiency declines linearly with increasing plasmid size. Relaxed and supercoiled plasmids transform with similar probabilities. Non-transforming DNAs compete consistent with mass. No significant variation is observed between competing DNAs of different source, complexity, length or form. Competition with both transforming and non-transforming plasmids indicates that each cell is capable of taking up many DNA molecules, and that the establishment of a transformation event is neither helped nor hindered significantly by the presence of multiple plasmids.
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        The Ashbya gossypii genome as a tool for mapping the ancient Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

        We have sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii. With a size of only 9.2 megabases, encoding 4718 protein-coding genes, it is the smallest genome of a free-living eukaryote yet characterized. More than 90% of A. gossypii genes show both homology and a particular pattern of synteny with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of this pattern revealed 300 inversions and translocations that have occurred since divergence of these two species. It also provided compelling evidence that the evolution of S. cerevisiae included a whole genome duplication or fusion of two related species and showed, through inferred ancient gene orders, which of the duplicated genes lost one copy and which retained both copies.
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          Closing mitosis: the functions of the Cdc14 phosphatase and its regulation.

          Completion of the cell cycle requires the temporal and spatial coordination of chromosome segregation with mitotic spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. In budding yeast, the protein phosphatase Cdc14 is a key regulator of these late mitotic events. Here, we review the functions of Cdc14 and how this phosphatase is regulated to accomplish the coupling of mitotic processes. We also discuss the function and regulation of Cdc14 in other eukaryotes, emphasizing conserved features.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            *Department of Molecular Microbiology, Biozentrum University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland;
            Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110; and
            Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160
            Author notes
            Address correspondence to: Sue L. Jaspersen ( slj@ 123456stowers.org ).
            Contributors
            Role: Monitoring Editor
            Journal
            Mol Biol Cell
            mbc
            mbc
            Mol. Bio. Cell
            Molecular Biology of the Cell
            The American Society for Cell Biology
            1059-1524
            1939-4586
            1 March 2010
            : 21
            : 5
            : 753-766
            20053682
            2828962
            3566656
            10.1091/mbc.E09-07-0555
            (Monitoring Editor)
            © 2010 by The American Society for Cell Biology
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            Categories
            Articles
            Cytoskeleton

            Molecular biology

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