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      Starch structural and functional properties of waxy maize under different temperature regimes at grain formation stage


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          • Excessive high temperature (>35 °C) enlarges and corrodes the starch granules.

          • Heat stress increases the proportion of amylopectin long chains.

          • Extremely high temperature induces the lowest pasting viscosity and the highest retrogradation of starch.

          • This study provides scientific basis for the deterioration of waxy maize starch under severe high temperature.


          Global warming affects crop productivity, but the influence is uncertain under different temperature regimes. The impact of growth temperatures (T0, 28 °C/20 °C; T1, 32 °C/24 °C; T2, 36 °C/28 °C; T3, 40 °C/32 °C) at grain formation stage on the waxy maize starch physicochemical properties of Suyunuo5 (heat-sensitive hybrid) and Yunuo7 (heat-tolerant hybrid) was studied. Compared with T0, T2 and T3 resulted in a higher number of starch granules with more pitted or uneven surface due to the enhanced enzymatic activities of α-amylase and β-amylase. Meanwhile, large starch granule size, long amylopectin chain-length, and high relative crystallinity under T2 and T3 resulted in low pasting viscosities and gelatinization enthalpy and high retrogradation percentage, especially under T3. The low coefficient variation of gelatinization temperatures indicated that the differences were meaninglessness. The influence of T1 on the pasting viscosities were more obvious in Suyunuo5. In conclusion, high temperatures at grain formation stage deteriorated the starch pasting and retrogradation properties.

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          Most cited references37

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          Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates.

          Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments. Results from the different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield at the global scale, generally underpinned by similar impacts at country and site scales. Without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation, and genetic improvement, each degree-Celsius increase in global mean temperature would, on average, reduce global yields of wheat by 6.0%, rice by 3.2%, maize by 7.4%, and soybean by 3.1%. Results are highly heterogeneous across crops and geographical areas, with some positive impact estimates. Multimethod analyses improved the confidence in assessments of future climate impacts on global major crops and suggest crop- and region-specific adaptation strategies to ensure food security for an increasing world population.
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            Impact of high temperatures in maize: Phenology and yield components

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              Flowering dynamics, pollen, and pistil contribution to grain yield in response to high temperature during maize flowering


                Author and article information

                Food Chem X
                Food Chem X
                Food Chemistry: X
                28 September 2022
                30 December 2022
                28 September 2022
                : 16
                [a ]Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
                [b ]Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou 225009, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. dllu@ 123456yzu.edu.cn

                X.G. and X.Z. contributed equally to this work.

                S2590-1575(22)00261-9 100463
                © 2022 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Research Article

                amylopectin chain-length,heat stress,retrogradation,starch granule morphology


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