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      A new species of the Asian leaf litter toad genus Leptobrachella Smith, 1925 (Anura, Megophryidae) from northwest Guizhou Province, China

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          A new species of the Asian leaf litter toad genus Leptobrachella is described from Guizhou Province, China. Molecular phylogenetic analyses support the new species as an independent lineage deeply nested in the Leptobrachella clade. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characters: body size medium (SVL 29.7–31.2 mm in five adult males); dorsal skin shagreened, some of the granules forming longitudinal short skin ridges; tympanum distinctly discernible, slightly concave; supra-axillary, femoral, pectoral and ventrolateral glands distinctly visible; absence of webbing and lateral fringes on fingers; toes with narrow lateral fringes but without webbing; heels overlapping when thighs are positioned at right angles to the body; tibia-tarsal articulation reaching the middle of eye when leg stretched forward. The discovery highlighted the underestimated species diversity in the Leptobrachella toads in southwestern China.

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          MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

          We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0.

            PhyML is a phylogeny software based on the maximum-likelihood principle. Early PhyML versions used a fast algorithm performing nearest neighbor interchanges to improve a reasonable starting tree topology. Since the original publication (Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003. A simple, fast and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52:696-704), PhyML has been widely used (>2500 citations in ISI Web of Science) because of its simplicity and a fair compromise between accuracy and speed. In the meantime, research around PhyML has continued, and this article describes the new algorithms and methods implemented in the program. First, we introduce a new algorithm to search the tree space with user-defined intensity using subtree pruning and regrafting topological moves. The parsimony criterion is used here to filter out the least promising topology modifications with respect to the likelihood function. The analysis of a large collection of real nucleotide and amino acid data sets of various sizes demonstrates the good performance of this method. Second, we describe a new test to assess the support of the data for internal branches of a phylogeny. This approach extends the recently proposed approximate likelihood-ratio test and relies on a nonparametric, Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like procedure. A detailed analysis of real alignments sheds light on the links between this new approach and the more classical nonparametric bootstrap method. Overall, our tests show that the last version (3.0) of PhyML is fast, accurate, stable, and ready to use. A Web server and binary files are available from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/.
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              Precision Farming: Technologies and Information as Risk-Reduction Tools

               Franklin Hall (1999)

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                02 March 2021
                : 1021
                : 81-107
                [1 ] Department of Resources and Environment, Moutai Institute, Renhuai 564500, China Moutai Institute Renhuai China
                [2 ] Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Chengdu China
                [3 ] Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China, Nanjing 210042, China Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China Nanjing China
                Author notes

                Academic editor: A. Ohler

                Yan-Lin Cheng, Sheng-Chao Shi, Jiaqi Li, Jing Liu, Shi-Ze Li, Bin Wang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article
                China Seas
                Far East


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