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      Ago HITS-CLIP decodes miRNA-mRNA interaction maps

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          Summary

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression. However, since miRNA activity requires base pairing with only 6-8 nucleotides of mRNA, predicting target mRNAs is a major challenge. Recently, high-throughput sequencing of RNAs isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) has identified functional protein-RNA interaction sites. Here we use HITS-CLIP to covalently crosslink native Argonaute (Ago) protein-RNA complexes in mouse brain. This produced two simultaneous datasets—Ago-miRNA and Ago-mRNA binding sites—that were combined with bioinformatic analysis to identify miRNA-target mRNA interaction sites. We validated genome-wide interaction maps for miR-124, and generated additional maps for the 20 most abundant miRNAs present in P13 mouse brain. Ago HITS-CLIP provides a general platform for exploring the specificity and range of miRNA action in vivo, and identifies precise sequences for targeting clinically relevant miRNA-mRNA interactions.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Switching from repression to activation: microRNAs can up-regulate translation.

          AU-rich elements (AREs) and microRNA target sites are conserved sequences in messenger RNA (mRNA) 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) that control gene expression posttranscriptionally. Upon cell cycle arrest, the ARE in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA is transformed into a translation activation signal, recruiting Argonaute (AGO) and fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1), factors associated with micro-ribonucleoproteins (microRNPs). We show that human microRNA miR369-3 directs association of these proteins with the AREs to activate translation. Furthermore, we document that two well-studied microRNAs-Let-7 and the synthetic microRNA miRcxcr4-likewise induce translation up-regulation of target mRNAs on cell cycle arrest, yet they repress translation in proliferating cells. Thus, activation is a common function of microRNPs on cell cycle arrest. We propose that translation regulation by microRNPs oscillates between repression and activation during the cell cycle.
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            HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing

            Summary Protein-RNA interactions play critical roles in all aspects of gene expression. Here we develop a genome-wide means of mapping protein-RNA binding sites in vivo, by high throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). HITS-CLIP analysis of the neuron-specific splicing factor Nova2 revealed extremely reproducible RNA binding maps in multiple mouse brains. These maps provide genome-wide in vivo biochemical footprints confirming the previous prediction that the position of Nova binding determines the outcome of alternative splicing; moreover, they are sufficiently powerful to predict Nova action de novo. HITS-CLIP revealed a large number of Nova-RNA interactions in 3′ UTRs, leading to the discovery that Nova regulates alternative polyadenylation in the brain. HITS-CLIP, therefore, provides a robust, unbiased means to identify functional protein-RNA interactions in vivo.
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              MicroRNAs to Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 coding regions modulate embryonic stem cell differentiation.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs that direct messenger RNA degradation or disrupt mRNA translation in a sequence-dependent manner. For more than a decade, attempts to study the interaction of miRNAs with their targets were confined to the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs, fuelling an underlying assumption that these regions are the principal recipients of miRNA activity. Here we focus on the mouse Nanog, Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) and Sox2 genes and demonstrate the existence of many naturally occurring miRNA targets in their amino acid coding sequence (CDS). Some of the mouse targets analysed do not contain the miRNA seed, whereas others span exon-exon junctions or are not conserved in the human and rhesus genomes. miR-134, miR-296 and miR-470, upregulated on retinoic-acid-induced differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, target the CDS of each transcription factor in various combinations, leading to transcriptional and morphological changes characteristic of differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells, and resulting in a new phenotype. Silent mutations at the predicted targets abolish miRNA activity, prevent the downregulation of the corresponding genes and delay the induced phenotype. Our findings demonstrate the abundance of CDS-located miRNA targets, some of which can be species-specific, and support an augmented model whereby animal miRNAs exercise their control on mRNAs through targets that can reside beyond the 3' untranslated region.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                0410462
                6011
                Nature
                Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                13 July 2009
                17 June 2009
                23 July 2009
                23 January 2010
                : 460
                : 7254
                : 479-486
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, NY, NY 10021 USA
                Author notes

                Author Contributions S.W.C. and R.B.D conceived, designed and supervised the experiments, analyzed the data and wrote the paper. J.B.Z did the initial experiments with the 7G1-1* antibody. A.M. helped with all HITS-CLIP experiments.

                Article
                nihpa120632
                10.1038/nature08170
                2733940
                19536157
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke : NINDS
                Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute
                Award ID: R01 NS034389-14 ||NS
                Funded by: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke : NINDS
                Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute
                Award ID: ||HHMI_
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