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      Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

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          Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50%) determined through coronary angiography is not well described.


          We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown o n angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.


          Most patients (81.7%) were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%), dyslipidemia (47.5%), and diabetes (37.7%). In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that 85.1% of patients had some type of dyslipidemia, and the most frequent was low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (68.6% of cases).


          We found at least one conventional risk factor in 95.7% of patients with ACS and significant CAD. The lipid profile analysis revealed that two thirds of cases had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

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          Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine.

          A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: (see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.
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            Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

            To assess predictors of CVD mortality among men with and without diabetes and to assess the independent effect of diabetes on the risk of CVD death. Participants in this cohort study were screened from 1973 to 1975; vital status has been ascertained over an average of 12 yr of follow-up (range 11-13 yr). Participants were 347,978 men aged 35-57 yr, screened in 20 centers for MRFIT. The outcome measure was CVD mortality. Among 5163 men who reported taking medication for diabetes, 1092 deaths (603 CVD deaths) occurred in an average of 12 yr of follow-up. Among 342,815 men not taking medication for diabetes, 20,867 deaths were identified, 8965 ascribed to CVD. Absolute risk of CVD death was much higher for diabetic than nondiabetic men of every age stratum, ethnic background, and risk factor level--overall three times higher, with adjustment for age, race, income, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and reported number of cigarettes/day (P < 0.0001). For men both with and without diabetes, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and cigarette smoking were significant predictors of CVD mortality. For diabetic men with higher values for each risk factor and their combinations, absolute risk of CVD death increased more steeply than for nondiabetic men, so that absolute excess risk for diabetic men was progressively greater than for nondiabetic men with higher risk factor levels. These findings emphasize the importance of rigorous sustained intervention in people with diabetes to control blood pressure, lower serum cholesterol, and abolish cigarette smoking, and the importance of considering nutritional-hygienic approaches on a mass scale to prevent diabetes.
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              Secular trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors according to body mass index in US adults.

              Prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased dramatically in recent decades, but the magnitude of change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the growing proportion of overweight and obese Americans remains unknown. To examine 40-year trends in CVD risk factors by body mass index (BMI) groups among US adults aged 20 to 74 years. Analysis of 5 cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys: National Health Examination Survey (1960-1962); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1975), II (1976-1980), and III (1988-1994); and NHANES 1999-2000. Prevalence of high cholesterol level (> or =240 mg/dL [> or =6.2 mmol/L] regardless of treatment), high blood pressure (> or =140/90 mm Hg regardless of treatment), current smoking, and total diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed combined) according to BMI group (lean, or =30). The prevalence of all risk factors except diabetes decreased over time across all BMI groups, with the greatest reductions observed among overweight and obese groups. Compared with obese persons in 1960-1962, obese persons in 1999-2000 had a 21-percentage-point lower prevalence of high cholesterol level (39% in 1960-1962 vs 18% in 1999-2000), an 18-percentage-point lower prevalence of high blood pressure (from 42% to 24%), and a 12-percentage-point lower smoking prevalence (from 32% to 20%). Survey x BMI group interaction terms indicated that compared with the first survey, the prevalence of high cholesterol in the fifth survey had fallen more in obese and overweight persons than in lean persons (P<.05). Survey x BMI changes in blood pressure and smoking were not statistically significant. Changes in risk factors were accompanied by increases in lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication use, particularly among obese persons. Total diabetes prevalence was stable within BMI groups over time, as nonsignificant 1- to 2-percentage-point increases occurred between 1976-1980 and 1999-2000. Except for diabetes, CVD risk factors have declined considerably over the past 40 years in all BMI groups. Although obese persons still have higher risk factor levels than lean persons, the levels of these risk factors are much lower than in previous decades.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                06 October 2014
                : 10
                : 815-823
                [1 ]Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico
                [3 ]Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Héctor González-Pacheco, Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Juan Badiano num 1 Colonia Sección XVI, CP 14080, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Mexico, Tel +52 55 5485 2219, Email hectorglezp@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2014 González-Pacheco et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                conventional risk factors, hdl-c, acute coronary syndrome, stemi, nsteacs


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