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      Impact of mild to moderate COPD on feasibility and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients who received chemotherapy

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          Abstract

          Background

          Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant cause of death in patients with COPD, and the severity of COPD in NSCLC patients is classified mainly as mild to moderate. Most advanced NSCLC patients with mild to moderate COPD are treated with chemotherapy; however, the feasibility for and prognosis after chemotherapy of these patients are not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of mild to moderate COPD on the feasibility for and prognosis after chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.

          Patients and methods

          A retrospective review was performed on 268 NSCLC patients who received first-line chemotherapy from 2009 to 2014 in our institution. Finally, 85 evaluable patients were included in this study. The clinical characteristics, toxicity profile, objective response rate, and prognosis were analyzed and compared between patients with mild to moderate COPD and those without COPD (non-COPD).

          Results

          Forty-three patients were classified as COPD (27 cases mild and 16 cases moderate) and 42 patients as non-COPD. The COPD group were older and had fewer never-smokers than the non-COPD group. The objective response rate did not differ between groups ( p=0.14). There was no significant difference in overall survival between COPD and non-COPD groups (15.0 and 17.0 months, log-rank test p=0.57). In the multivariate Cox’s proportional hazard model, the adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) was statistically significant for male sex (HRadj =5.382, 95% CI: 1.496–19.359; p=0.010), pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (HRadj =0.460, 95% CI: 0.223–0.948; p=0.035), and epithelial growth factor receptor negative mutation (HRadj =6.040, 95% CI: 1.158–31.497; p=0.033), but not for the presence of COPD (HRadj =0.661, 95% CI: 0.330–1.325; p=0.24). Toxicity profile in COPD group was favorable, as in the non-COPD group.

          Conclusion

          Mild to moderate COPD did not have a significant deleterious impact on toxicity and prognosis in NSCLC patients.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Mortality in COPD: Role of comorbidities.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents an increasing burden throughout the world. COPD-related mortality is probably underestimated because of the difficulties associated with identifying the precise cause of death. Respiratory failure is considered the major cause of death in advanced COPD. Comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer are also major causes and, in mild-to-moderate COPD, are the leading causes of mortality. The links between COPD and these conditions are not fully understood. However, a link through the inflammation pathway has been suggested, as persistent low-grade pulmonary and systemic inflammation, both known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer, are present in COPD independent of cigarette smoking. Lung-specific measurements, such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), predict mortality in COPD and in the general population. However, composite tools, such as health-status measurements (e.g. St George's Respiratory Questionnaire) and the BODE index, which incorporates Body mass index, lung function (airflow Obstruction), Dyspnoea and Exercise capacity, predict mortality better than FEV(1) alone. These multidimensional tools may be more valuable because, unlike predictive approaches based on single parameters, they can reflect the range of comorbidities and the complexity of underlying mechanisms associated with COPD. The current paper reviews the role of comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality, the putative underlying pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid conditions (i.e. inflammation), and the tools used to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality.
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            COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbid disease in lung cancer, estimated to affect 40-70% of lung cancer patients, depending on diagnostic criteria. As smoking exposure is found in 85-90% of those diagnosed with either COPD or lung cancer, coexisting disease could merely reflect a shared smoking exposure. Potential confounding by age, sex and pack-yr smoking history, and/or by the possible effects of lung cancer on spirometry, may result in over-diagnosis of COPD prevalence. In the present study, the prevalence of COPD (pre-bronchodilator Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2+ criteria) in patients diagnosed with lung cancer was 50% compared with 8% in a randomly recruited community control group, matched for age, sex and pack-yr smoking exposure (n = 602, odds ratio 11.6; p<0.0001). In a subgroup analysis of those with lung cancer and lung function measured prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 127), we found a nonsignificant increase in COPD prevalence following diagnosis (56-61%; p = 0.45). After controlling for important variables, the prevalence of COPD in newly diagnosed lung cancer cases was six-fold greater than in matched smokers; this is much greater than previously reported. We conclude that COPD is both a common and important independent risk factor for lung cancer.
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              Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Comorbidities such as cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders are commonly reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but with great variability in reported prevalence. Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for many of these comorbidities as well as for COPD, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the relationship between COPD and these comorbidities. However, recent large epidemiologic studies have confirmed the independent detrimental effects of these comorbidities on patients with COPD. On the other hand, many of these comorbidities are now considered to be part of the commonly prevalent nonpulmonary sequelae of COPD that are relevant not only to the understanding of the real burden of COPD but also to the development of effective management strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                11 December 2017
                : 12
                : 3541-3547
                Affiliations
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Norihito Omote, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan, Tel +81 527 44 2167, Fax +81 527 44 2176, Email nori05692000@ 123456yahoo.co.jp
                Article
                copd-12-3541
                10.2147/COPD.S149456
                5729822
                © 2017 Omote et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                toxicity, survival, prognostic factors

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