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      General rather than specific: Cognitive deficits in suppressing task irrelevant stimuli are associated with buying-shopping disorder

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To investigate associations between buying-shopping disorder (BSD) propensity and the performance in the Stroop Matching Task. This task measures stimulus interference, one specific component of behavioral impulsivity, using neutral (i.e. not buying related) stimuli. Deficits thus mirror a general rather than a specific deficit to resist task-irrelevant stimuli.

          Method

          222 participants completed the Stroop Matching Task, the Pathological Buying Screener, and various questionnaires assessing clinical background variables as well as trait-impulsivity.

          Results

          Correlation analyses showed that BSD propensity was associated with poorer performance in the Stroop Matching Task. Multiple regression analyses controlling for related disorders and trait-impulsivity indicated that BSD was the only significant predictor.

          Conclusion

          These findings indicate that BSD propensity is associated with deficits in the stimulus interference component of behavioral impulsivity, mirroring a general cognitive deficit. Since no other disorder significantly predicted the performance in the Stroop Matching Task, this deficit seems to be unique for BSD.

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          Most cited references35

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          The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: development and validation of a short version.

          This article reports on the development of a revised version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI; E. B. Foa, M. J. Kozak, P. Salkovskis, M. E. Coles, & N. Amir, 1998), a psychometrically sound, theoretically driven, self-report measure. The revised OCI (OCI-R) improves on the parent version in 3 ways: It eliminates the redundant frequency scale, simplifies the scoring of the subscales, and reduces overlap across subscales. The reliability and validity of the OCI-R were examined in 215 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 243 patients with other anxiety disorders, and 677 nonanxious individuals. The OCI-R, which contains 18 items and 6 subscales, has retained excellent psychometric properties. The OCI-R and its subscales differentiated well between individuals with and without OCD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses demonstrated the usefulness of the OCI-R as a diagnostic tool for screening patients with OCD, utilizing empirically derived cutscores.
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            The short version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23): development and initial data on psychometric properties.

            The full version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL; for clarification now labeled BSL-95) is a self-rating instrument for specific assessment of borderline-typical symptomatology. The BSL-95 items are based on criteria of the DSM-IV, the revised version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Personality Disorder, and the opinions of both clinical experts and borderline patients. The BSL-95 includes 95 items. In order to reduce patient burden and assessment time, a short version with 23 items (BSL-23) was developed. The development of the BSL-23 was based on a sample of 379 borderline patients, considering the items from the BSL-95 that had the highest levels of sensitivity to change and the highest ability to discriminate borderline patients from other patient groups. In a second step, the psychometric properties of the BSL-23 were investigated and compared with the psychometric properties of the BSL-95 in 5 different samples, including a total of 659 borderline patients. In all of the samples, a high correlation of the sum score was found between the BSL-23 and the BSL-95 (range: 0.958-0.963). The internal consistency was high for both versions (BSL-23/Cronbach's alpha: 0.935-0.969; BSL-95/Cronbach's alpha: 0.977-0.978). Both BSL-23 and BSL-95 clearly discriminated borderline personality disorder patients from patients with an axis I diagnosis (mean effect sizes were 1.13 and 0.96 for the BSL-23 and BSL-95, respectively). In addition, comparisons before and after 3 months of dialectical behavior therapy revealed a numerically larger effect size for the BSL-23 (d = 0.47) compared to the BSL-95 (d = 0.38). The results indicate that the BSL-23 is an efficient and convenient self-rating instrument that displays good psychometric properties comparable to those of the BSL-95. The BSL-23 also demonstrated sensitivity to the effects of therapy. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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              Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity?

              There has been little empirical evidence examining the overlap in nomothetic span for self-report measures and construct representation for behavioral lab tasks in most psychological constructs. Using the personality trait of impulsivity as an example, the authors completed a meta-analysis of 27 published research studies examining the relationship between these methods. In general, although there is a statistically significant relationship between multidimensional self-report and lab task impulsivity (r = 0.097), practically, the relationship is small. Examining relationships among unidimensional impulsivity self-report and lab task conceptualizations indicated very little overlap in self-report and behavioral lab task constructs. Significant relationships were found between lack of perseverance and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.099); between lack of planning and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.106), delay response (r = 0.134), and distortions in elapsed time (r = 0.104); between negative urgency and prepotent response inhibition (r = 0.106); and between sensation seeking and delay response (r = 0.131). Researchers should take care to specify which particular unidimensional constructs are operationalized with not only impulsivity, but with all traits. If self-report and lab task conceptualizations measure disparate aspects of impulsivity, we, as a field, should not expect large conceptual overlap between these methods. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                4 August 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 8
                : e0237093
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
                [2 ] Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
                [3 ] Psychological Research Methods, Department of Psychology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
                University of Queensland, AUSTRALIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2227-3272
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2929-7288
                Article
                PONE-D-20-04126
                10.1371/journal.pone.0237093
                7402500
                32750087
                ce20bf25-72b1-4906-b1a4-c3ae1623d93b
                © 2020 Lindheimer et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 12 February 2020
                : 20 July 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 12
                Funding
                The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
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