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      Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in IgA Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: To clarify the role of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) phenotype in IgA nephropathy, we investigated its relationship with histological damage and clinical factors. Methods: The subjects were 104 consecutive patients (41 men and 63 women) with IgA nephropathy. The Apo E phenotype was identified by plasma isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting, and the frequencies of Apo E alleles were calculated. Results: The frequencies of the phenotypes and the alleles were as follows: 2/2 = 0, 2/3 = 0.086, 3/3 = 0.654, 2/4 = 0.010, 4/3 = 0.211, 4/4 = 0.010, 3/5 = 0.029, Ε2 = 0.048, Ε3 = 0.817, Ε4 = 0.120, and others = 0.015. There were no significant differences between the IgA nephropathy patients and healthy individuals in the frequencies of Apo E phenotypes and the alleles. However, the Apo E2 phenotype was significantly more common among patients with severe histological damage than in those with mild damage. The serum triglyceride levels were significantly elevated, and the Apo E2 phenotype was significantly more prevalent in patients with severe histological damage as compared with those with mild damage. Conclusion: The Apo E2 phenotype appears to be associated with the severity of histological damage in IgA nephropathy.

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          Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in health and disease.

           G Utermann (1987)
          Genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein (apo) E is controlled by three common (epsilon 2, epsilon 2, epsilon 4) and several rare alleles (e.g., epsilon 1, epsilon 4*, epsilon 4v) at the apo E structural gene locus and may be demonstrated by isoelectric focusing of delipidated sera followed by immunoblotting. Apo E allele frequencies vary significantly between different ethnic groups. The common apo E isoforms E2 (arg158----cys) and E4 (cys112----arg) differ functionally from the parent E3 isoform, explaining their effects on the normal variance of plasma lipoprotein concentrations and their association with hyperlipidemic conditions. In all studied populations the receptor-binding defective apo E2 (arg158----cys) is associated with low cholesterol and apo B in heterozygotes and results in primary dysbetalipoproteinemia or type III hyperlipoproteinemia in homozygotes. Conversely, the epsilon 4 allele is associated with high cholesterol in Finns and Germans but less or not significantly so in Japanese or Singapore populations. In addition to their effects on the normal variance of lipoprotein concentrations, the alleles epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. A working hypothesis explaining these observations is presented.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            1999
            November 1999
            13 October 1999
            : 83
            : 3
            : 246-249
            Affiliations
            2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima, Japan
            Article
            45517 Nephron 1999;83:246–249
            10.1159/000045517
            10529631
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 19, Pages: 4
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45517
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