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      Effect of Dry-Land Core Training on Physical Fitness and Swimming Performance in Adolescent Elite Swimmers


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          We aimed to investigate the effect of a 12-week dry-land core training program on physical fitness and swimming performance in elite adolescent swimmers.


          Thirty subjects were selected and assigned to the core training group (CTG, n=15) and the traditional weight training group (WTG, n=15) in Seoul, Korea, between Sep and Dec 2016. The field fitness test was performed to determine the isotonic maximum muscular strength (one repetition maximum of deadlift and cable pulldown), anaerobic power (Wingate test), core stability (sports-specific endurance plank), core muscular power (front abdominal power, side abdominal power), muscular endurance of limbs (push-up, endurance jump), and swim performance improvement (personal record). Differences between groups after the exercise intervention were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.


          There were no significant interactions in isotonic maximum strength, anaerobic power (mean power, fatigue index), core muscular power, muscular endurance of limbs (endurance jump), and swim record improvement ( P>0.05). The anaerobic peak power ( P<0.001), sports-specific endurance plank test ( P<0.001), and push-up test ( P<0.001) showed significant interaction effects.


          The 12-week dry-land core training program resulted in statistically significant improvements in anaerobic power, core stability, upper extremity muscular endurance, and swimming performance.

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          Most cited references24

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          Strength and power predictors of swimming starts in international sprint swimmers.

          Start performance (as defined by time to 15 m) has been shown to be a key performance indicator during 50-m freestyle swimming; however, there is limited information with regard to the key strength and power variables that influence start performance during sprint swimming. In light of the above, this study aimed to examine the key strength and power predicators of start performance in 50-m freestyle swimming. Eleven male British international sprint swimmers (age 21.3 ± 1.7 years; mass 78.1 ± 11.2 kg; and height 1.8 ± 0.1 m) participated in this study. Within 1 week, swimmers performed the following tests: 3 repetition maximum (3RM) squat strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) on a portable force platform, and a measure of start time performance (time to 15 m under 50-m freestyle conditions). The start time was measured using a standard racing platform to which a portable force platform was mounted, and all starts were recorded using 2 cameras. This setup allowed for the quantification of time to 15 m, peak vertical force (PVF), and peak horizontal force (PHF). Data were analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation with significance set at p 0.05). Furthermore, lower body strength was a key determinant of jump height (r = 0.69), power (r = 0.78), PVF (r = 0.62), and PHF (r = 0.71) (p < 0.05). This study provides evidence of the importance of lower body strength and power to start time in international 50-m sprint swimmers.
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            Core Training: Evidence Translating to Better Performance and Injury Prevention

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              Optimizing performance by improving core stability and core strength.

              Core stability and core strength have been subject to research since the early 1980s. Research has highlighted benefits of training these processes for people with back pain and for carrying out everyday activities. However, less research has been performed on the benefits of core training for elite athletes and how this training should be carried out to optimize sporting performance. Many elite athletes undertake core stability and core strength training as part of their training programme, despite contradictory findings and conclusions as to their efficacy. This is mainly due to the lack of a gold standard method for measuring core stability and strength when performing everyday tasks and sporting movements. A further confounding factor is that because of the differing demands on the core musculature during everyday activities (low load, slow movements) and sporting activities (high load, resisted, dynamic movements), research performed in the rehabilitation sector cannot be applied to the sporting environment and, subsequently, data regarding core training programmes and their effectiveness on sporting performance are lacking. There are many articles in the literature that promote core training programmes and exercises for performance enhancement without providing a strong scientific rationale of their effectiveness, especially in the sporting sector. In the rehabilitation sector, improvements in lower back injuries have been reported by improving core stability. Few studies have observed any performance enhancement in sporting activities despite observing improvements in core stability and core strength following a core training programme. A clearer understanding of the roles that specific muscles have during core stability and core strength exercises would enable more functional training programmes to be implemented, which may result in a more effective transfer of these skills to actual sporting activities.

                Author and article information

                Iran J Public Health
                Iran J Public Health
                Iranian Journal of Public Health
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                March 2021
                : 50
                : 3
                : 540-549
                [1. ]Department of Sports Medicine, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Korea
                [2. ]Department of Sports Rehabilitation, Korea Nazarene University, Cheonan, Korea
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2021 Ji et al. Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Public health
                adolescent swimmer,core training,elite,swimming performance
                Public health
                adolescent swimmer, core training, elite, swimming performance


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