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      Dietary Diversity and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Shashemane, Oromia, Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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          Maternal dietary diversity is a proxy indicator of maternal nutrient adequacy and improves health outcomes for both mothers and babies. However, little is documented on dietary diversity among pregnant mothers. Therefore, this study assessed diet diversity and associated factors among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic in Shashemane, Oromia, Central Ethiopia.


          An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 315 systematically selected pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of Shashemane town in April 2017. Dietary diversity was assessed using a 24 h dietary recall method, and the dietary diversity score was computed for ten food groups. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were computed to identify associated factors of dietary diversity.


          In this study, only a quarter (25.4%) of pregnant mothers consumed adequate dietary diversity. Mother's tertiary (AOR 3.18; 95% CI: 1.8, 6.35) and secondary (AOR 2.13; 95% CI: 2.32, 8.72) education, household monthly income above 3500 ETB (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.47, 7.78), livestock ownership (AOR = 4.15; 95% CI: 2.07, 9.86), women who got emotional support from the husband (AOR = 3.49; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.23), and women who participated in the shooping (AOR = 2.54; 95% CI: 3.27, 9.83) were more likely to attain the adequate dietary diversity.


          The study revealed that the overall consumption of adequate dietary diversity was found to be low. Developing the educational level of women, increasing household income and owning of livestock, increasing husbands' support, and improving women's participation in the shopping are recommended to improve women's adequate dietary diversity.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

          Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies. We convened a two-day workshop, in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
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              Working models of attachment shape perceptions of social support: evidence from experimental and observational studies.

              Two studies examined the association between attachment style and perceptions of social support. Study 1 (N = 95 couples) used an experimental paradigm to manipulate social support in the context of a stressful task. Insecure participants (anxious and avoidant) who received low-support messages appraised these messages more negatively, rated a prior behavioral interaction with their partner as having been less supportive, and performed significantly worse at their task compared with secure participants. Study 2 (N = 153 couples) used a similar paradigm except that partners were allowed to send genuine support messages. Insecure participants (especially fearful) perceived their partners' messages as less supportive, even after controlling for independent ratings of the messages and relationship-specific expectations. These studies provide evidence that individuals are predisposed to appraise their support experiences in ways that are consistent with their chronic working models of attachment, especially when the support message is ambiguous. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

                Author and article information

                J Nutr Metab
                J Nutr Metab
                Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
                12 March 2019
                : 2019
                1Debre Markos University, College of Health Science, Department of Midwifery, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
                2Debre Berhan University, Institute of Medicine and Health Science, Department of Midwifery, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
                3Hawassa University, College of Health Science, Department of Midwifery, Awasa, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: H. K. Biesalski

                Copyright © 2019 Melaku Desta et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics


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