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      MicroRNAs in kidney physiology and disease

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      Nature Reviews Nephrology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. They have important roles during kidney development, homeostasis and disease. In particular, miRNAs participate in the onset and progression of tubulointerstitial sclerosis and end-stage glomerular lesions that occur in various forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, miRNAs represent potential new therapeutic targets for a debilitating disease that continues to increase in prevalence worldwide and for which fully effective therapies are lacking. Several lines of research aimed at improving common CKD diagnostic tools and avoiding invasive kidney biopsies have also identified circulating miRNAs as possible diagnostic and even prognostic biomarkers of kidney disease. This Review discusses current understanding of the function of miRNAs in CKD, focusing on functions specifically involved in the transforming growth factor β1 pathway, which is activated in CKD. miRNAs that, according to available evidence, seem to be involved in diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease and graft rejection, are also discussed.

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          Most cited references 114

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          Gene silencing by microRNAs: contributions of translational repression and mRNA decay.

          Despite their widespread roles as regulators of gene expression, important questions remain about target regulation by microRNAs. Animal microRNAs were originally thought to repress target translation, with little or no influence on mRNA abundance, whereas the reverse was thought to be true in plants. Now, however, it is clear that microRNAs can induce mRNA degradation in animals and, conversely, translational repression in plants. Recent studies have made important advances in elucidating the relative contributions of these two different modes of target regulation by microRNAs. They have also shed light on the specific mechanisms of target silencing, which, although it differs fundamentally between plants and animals, shares some common features between the two kingdoms.
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            Microarray profiling of microRNAs reveals frequent coexpression with neighboring miRNAs and host genes.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous RNAs known to post-transcriptionally repress gene expression in animals and plants. A microarray profiling survey revealed the expression patterns of 175 human miRNAs across 24 different human organs. Our results show that proximal pairs of miRNAs are generally coexpressed. In addition, an abrupt transition in the correlation between pairs of expressed miRNAs occurs at a distance of 50 kb, implying that miRNAs separated by <50 kb typically derive from a common transcript. Some microRNAs are within the introns of host genes. Intronic miRNAs are usually coordinately expressed with their host gene mRNA, implying that they also generally derive from a common transcript, and that in situ analyses of host gene expression can be used to probe the spatial and temporal localization of intronic miRNAs.
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              MicroRNA-10a binds the 5'UTR of ribosomal protein mRNAs and enhances their translation.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNAs affect a variety of signaling pathways, and impaired miRNA regulation may contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases. Here we show that miRNA miR-10a interacts with the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins to enhance their translation. miR-10a alleviates translational repression of the ribosomal protein mRNAs during amino acid starvation and is required for their translational induction following anisomycin treatment or overexpression of RAS. We show that miR-10a binds immediately downstream of the regulatory 5'TOP motif and that the 5'TOP regulatory complex and miR-10a are functionally interconnected. The results show that miR-10a may positively control global protein synthesis via the stimulation of ribosomal protein mRNA translation and ribosome biogenesis and hereby affect the ability of cells to undergo transformation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                January 2015
                November 11 2014
                January 2015
                : 11
                : 1
                : 23-33
                Article
                10.1038/nrneph.2014.202
                25385286
                © 2015

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