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      Electrically driven amplified spontaneous emission from colloidal quantum dots

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          Abstract

          Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are attractive materials for realizing solution-processable laser diodes that could benefit from size-controlled emission wavelengths, low optical-gain thresholds and ease of integration with photonic and electronic circuits 17 . However, the implementation of such devices has been hampered by fast Auger recombination of gain-active multicarrier states 1, 8 , poor stability of QD films at high current densities 9, 10 and the difficulty to obtain net optical gain in a complex device stack wherein a thin electroluminescent QD layer is combined with optically lossy charge-conducting layers 1113 . Here we resolve these challenges and achieve amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from electrically pumped colloidal QDs. The developed devices use compact, continuously graded QDs with suppressed Auger recombination incorporated into a pulsed, high-current-density charge-injection structure supplemented by a low-loss photonic waveguide. These colloidal QD ASE diodes exhibit strong, broadband optical gain and demonstrate bright edge emission with instantaneous power of up to 170 μW.

          Abstract

          Colloidal quantum dot devices demonstrating electrically pumped amplified spontaneous emission are described, showing strong, broadband optical gain and bright edge emission, opening the path to solution-processable laser diodes.

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          Most cited references36

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          Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites

          Metal halide semiconductors with perovskite crystal structures have recently emerged as highly promising optoelectronic materials. Despite the recent surge of reports on microcrystalline, thin-film and bulk single-crystalline metal halides, very little is known about the photophysics of metal halides in the form of uniform, size-tunable nanocrystals. Here we report low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from ∼10 nm monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br or I, or mixed Cl/Br and Br/I systems). We find that room-temperature optical amplification can be obtained in the entire visible spectral range (440–700 nm) with low pump thresholds down to 5±1 μJ cm−2 and high values of modal net gain of at least 450±30 cm−1. Two kinds of lasing modes are successfully observed: whispering-gallery-mode lasing using silica microspheres as high-finesse resonators, conformally coated with CsPbX3 nanocrystals and random lasing in films of CsPbX3 nanocrystals.
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            Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots.

            The development of optical gain in chemically synthesized semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystal quantum dots) has been intensely studied as the first step toward nanocrystal quantum dot lasers. We examined the competing dynamical processes involved in optical amplification and lasing in nanocrystal quantum dots and found that, despite a highly efficient intrinsic nonradiative Auger recombination, large optical gain can be developed at the wavelength of the emitting transition for close-packed solids of these dots. Narrowband stimulated emission with a pronounced gain threshold at wavelengths tunable with the size of the nanocrystal was observed, as expected from quantum confinement effects. These results unambiguously demonstrate the feasibility of nanocrystal quantum dot lasers.
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              Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                klimov@lanl.gov
                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                3 May 2023
                3 May 2023
                2023
                : 617
                : 7959
                : 79-85
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.148313.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0428 3079, Nanotechnology and Advanced Spectroscopy Team, C-PCS, Chemistry Division, , Los Alamos National Laboratory, ; Los Alamos, NM USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.266832.b, ISNI 0000 0001 2188 8502, Center for High Technology Materials, , University of New Mexico, ; Albuquerque, NM USA
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2666-1061
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6094-3498
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7452-6791
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4204-1305
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1158-3179
                Article
                5855
                10.1038/s41586-023-05855-6
                10156592
                37138110
                ce582758-8fa4-4013-8045-6b724ee95f3f
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 3 August 2022
                : 16 February 2023
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                © Springer Nature Limited 2023

                Uncategorized
                diode lasers,quantum dots
                Uncategorized
                diode lasers, quantum dots

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