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      Modulating radiation resistance by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase in cancers with virally or mutationally silenced p53 protein.

      Radiation research
      Base Sequence, Blotting, Western, Cell Line, DNA Damage, DNA Primers, DNA Repair, Flow Cytometry, Gene Silencing, Humans, Neoplasms, enzymology, genetics, pathology, Pyridines, pharmacology, Radiation Tolerance, Ribonucleotide Reductases, antagonists & inhibitors, Thiosemicarbazones, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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          Therapeutic ionizing radiation damages DNA, increasing p53-regulated ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity required for de novo synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates used during DNA repair. This study investigated the pharmacological inhibition of RNR in cells of virally or mutationally silenced p53 cancer cell lines using 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, Triapine(R), NSC #663249), a chemotherapeutic radiosensitizer that equally inhibits RNR M2 and p53R2 small subunits. The effects of 3-AP on RNR inhibition and resulting radiosensitization were evaluated in cervical (CaSki, HeLa and C33-a) and colon (RKO, RKO-E6) cancer cells. 3-AP treatment significantly enhanced radiation-related cytotoxicity in cervical and colon cancer cells. 3-AP treatment significantly decreased RNR activity, caused prolonged radiation-induced DNA damage, and resulted in an extended G(1)/S-phase cell cycle arrest in all cell lines. Similar effects were observed in both RKO and RKO-E6 cells, suggesting a p53-independent mechanism of radiosensitization. We conclude that inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase by 3-AP enhances radiation-mediated cytotoxicity independent of p53 regulation by impairing repair processes that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production, thereby substantially increasing the radiation sensitivity of human cancers.

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