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      Comparable long-term efficacy, as assessed by patient-reported outcomes, safety and pharmacokinetics, of CT-P13 and reference infliximab in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: 54-week results from the randomized, parallel-group PLANETAS study

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          Abstract

          Background

          CT-P13 (Remsima®, Inflectra®) is a biosimilar of the infliximab reference product (RP; Remicade®) and is approved in Europe and elsewhere, mostly for the same indications as RP. The aim of this study was to compare the 54-week efficacy, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of CT-P13 with RP in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), with a focus on patient-reported outcomes (PROs).

          Methods

          This was a multinational, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with active AS. Participants were randomized (1:1) to receive CT-P13 (5 mg/kg) or RP (5 mg/kg) at weeks 0, 2, 6 and then every 8 weeks up to week 54. To assess responses, standardized assessment tools were used with an intention-to-treat analysis of observed data. Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), PK parameters, and safety outcomes were also assessed.

          Results

          Of 250 randomized patients (n = 125 per group), 210 (84.0 %) completed 54 weeks of treatment, with similar completion rates between groups. At week 54, Assessment of Spondylo Arthritis international Society (ASAS)20 response, ASAS40 response and ASAS partial remission were comparable between treatment groups. Changes from baseline in PROs such as mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI; CT-P13 −3.1 versus RP −2.8), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI; −2.9 versus –2.7), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores (9.26 versus 10.13 for physical component summary; 7.30 versus 6.54 for mental component summary) were similar between treatment groups. At 54 weeks, 19.5 % and 23.0 % of patients receiving CT-P13 and RP, respectively, had ADAs. All observed PK parameters of CT-P13 and RP, including maximum and minimum serum concentrations, were similar through 54 weeks. The influence of ADAs on PK was similar in the two treatment groups. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. There was no notable difference between treatment groups in the incidence of adverse events, serious adverse events, infections and infusion-related reactions.

          Conclusions

          CT-P13 and RP have highly comparable efficacy (including PROs) and PK up to week 54. Over a 1-year period, CT-P13 was well tolerated and displayed a safety profile comparable to RP; no differences in immunogenicity were observed.

          Trial registration

          ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01220518. Registered 4 October 2010.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13075-016-0930-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references13

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          Treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis with infliximab: a randomised controlled multicentre trial.

          BACKGROUND Treatment options for patients with ankylosing spondylitis are few. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of infliximab, an antibody to tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in treatment of such patients. In this 12-week placebo-controlled multicentre study, we randomly assigned 35 patients with active ankylosing spondylitis to intravenous infliximab (5 mg/kg) and 35 to placebo at weeks 0, 2, and 6. One patient in the infliximab group was withdrawn from the study. Our primary outcome was regression of disease activity of at least 50%. To assess response, we used validated clinical criteria from the ankylosing spondylitis assessment working group, including disease activity (BASDAI), functional indices (BASFI), metrology (BASMI), and quality of life (short form 36). Analyses were done by intention to treat. 18 (53%) of 34 patients on infliximab had a regression of disease activity at week 12 of at least 50% compared with three (9%) of 35 on placebo (difference 44% [95% CI 23-61], p<0.0001). Function and quality of life also improved significantly on infliximab but not on placebo (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Treatment with infliximab was generally well tolerated, but three patients had to stop treatment because of systemic tuberculosis, allergic granulomatosis of the lung, or mild leucopenia. Our results show that treatment with infliximab is effective in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis. Since there are some potentially serious adverse effects, we recommend that this treatment mainly be used in co-operation with rheumatological centres.
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            Very early treatment with infliximab in addition to methotrexate in early, poor-prognosis rheumatoid arthritis reduces magnetic resonance imaging evidence of synovitis and damage, with sustained benefit after infliximab withdrawal: results from a twelve-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

            Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents are among the most effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their optimal use is yet to be determined. This 12-month double-blind study attempted remission induction using standard therapy with or without infliximab in patients with early, poor-prognosis RA. The primary end point was synovitis (measured by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Clinical observations continued to 24 months. All patients had fewer than 12 months of symptoms. Assessments included full metrologic evaluation, laboratory tests, radiographs, functional evaluation using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and quality of life measurement using the RA Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire. MRI was performed at 0, 4, 14, and 54 weeks; MR images were scored blindly. Patients received methotrexate (MTX) and were randomized to receive either infliximab or placebo for 12 months. Twenty patients were recruited (mean age 52 years, mean symptom duration 6 months, mean C-reactive protein level 42 mg/liter, and 65% rheumatoid factor positive). At 1 year, all MRI scores were significantly better, with no new erosions in the infliximab plus MTX group; a greater percentage of infliximab plus MTX-treated patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50% and 70% improvement criteria (78% versus 40% in the placebo plus MTX group and 67% versus 30%, respectively) and had a greater functional benefit (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Importantly, at 1 year after stopping induction therapy, response was sustained in 70% of the patients in the infliximab plus MTX group, with a median Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) of 2.05 (remission range). At 2 years, there were no significant between-group differences in the DAS28, ACR response, or radiographic scores, but differences in the HAQ and RAQoL scores were maintained (P < 0.05). Remission induction with infliximab plus MTX provided a significant reduction in MRI evidence of synovitis and erosions at 1 year. At 2 years, functional and quality of life benefits were sustained, despite withdrawal of infliximab therapy. These data may have significant implications for the optimal use of expensive biologic therapies.
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              The safety of infliximab, combined with background treatments, among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and various comorbidities: a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

              To assess the risk of serious infections following 22 weeks of infliximab therapy, and to further characterize the safety profile of infliximab in combination with background treatments during 1 year in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with various comorbidities. Patients with active RA despite receiving methotrexate (MTX) were randomly assigned to receive infusions of placebo (group 1, n=363), 3 mg/kg infliximab (group 2, n=360), or 10 mg/kg infliximab (group 3, n=361) at weeks 0, 2, 6, and 14. At week 22, patients in placebo group 1 began receiving 3 mg/kg infliximab, and patients in group 3 continued to receive an infliximab dose of 10 mg/kg. Patients in group 2 who failed to meet predefined response criteria received increasing doses of infliximab in increments of 1.5 mg/kg. At week 22, the relative risk of developing serious infections in groups 2 and 3, compared with group 1, was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.3-3.1, P=0.995) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-7.9, P=0.013), respectively. The incidence of serious adverse events was 7.8% in groups 2 and 3 compared with 7.5% in group 1. From week 22 to week 54, 11.8%, 9.9%, and 10.3% of patients in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, reported occurrences of serious adverse events. Through week 54, 1 patient in group 1, 2 patients in group 2, and 4 patients in group 3 developed active tuberculosis. The risk of serious infections in patients receiving the approved infliximab dose of 3 mg/kg plus MTX was similar to that in patients receiving MTX alone. Patients receiving the unapproved induction regimen of 10 mg/kg infliximab plus MTX followed by a 10 mg/kg maintenance regimen had an increased risk of serious infections through week 22.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                parkwon@inha.ac.kr
                dhyoo@hanyang.ac.kr
                januszjaworski@ymail.com
                janisb@poczta.onet.pl
                andrewgm@ya.ru
                vladimirkadinov@yahoo.com
                agoecke@med.uchile.cl
                c_abud@hotmail.com
                wiotero@gmail.com
                kangsw@cnuh.co.kr
                daina.andersone@stradini.lv
                francisco.blanco.garcia@sergas.es
                SeungSuh.Hong@celltrion.com
                SunHee.Lee@celltrion.com
                juergen.braun@elisabethgruppe.de
                Journal
                Arthritis Res Ther
                Arthritis Res. Ther
                Arthritis Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1478-6354
                1478-6362
                20 January 2016
                20 January 2016
                2016
                : 18
                : 25
                Affiliations
                [ ]Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea
                [ ]Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [ ]Linea Corporis, Warszawa, Poland
                [ ]Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony w Elblagu, Elblag, Poland
                [ ]Institute of Urgent and Recovery Surgery, Donetsk, Ukraine
                [ ]University Hospital St. Marina, Varna, Bulgaria
                [ ]Prosalud y Cia Ltda, Santiago, Chile
                [ ]Hospital Central Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto, San Luis Potosí, Mexico
                [ ]Servimed Empresa Unipersonal, Bucaramanga, Colombia
                [ ]Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
                [ ]P. Stradina Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia
                [ ]Hospital Universitario a Coruña, A Coruña, Spain
                [ ]CELLTRION, Incheon, Republic of Korea
                [ ]Rheumazentrum Ruhrgebiet, Herne, Germany
                Article
                930
                10.1186/s13075-016-0930-4
                4721187
                26795209
                ce7c9e18-3a88-4878-848b-051182521cc1
                © Park et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 5 October 2015
                : 8 January 2016
                Funding
                Funded by: CELLTRION Inc
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Orthopedics
                biosimilar,ct-p13,infliximab,ankylosing spondylitis,efficacy,immunogenicity,pharmacokinetics,safety,asas,clinical trial

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