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      Body Temperature – A Marker of Infarct Size in the Era of Early Reperfusion

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          Abstract

          We measured body temperature in 40 consecutive patients treated for a first ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with primary percutaneous coronary interventions. Left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography, and blood samples were drawn for highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, fibrinogen, creatine kinase (CK), and cardiac troponin I levels (cTnI). The median (25th, 75th quartiles) peak 24-hour temperature was 37.4°C (36.9°C, 37.6°C). Variables significantly associated with peak 24-hour temperature were CK (p = 0.01, r = 0.42), wall motion index (p = 0.01, r = 0.41), hs-CRP (p = 0.01, r = 0.41), and cTnI (p = 0.03, r = 0.35). There was no significant correlation between peak 24-hour temperature and WBC count (p = 0.39, r = 0.14) and fibrinogen (p = 0.12, r = 0.21). Thus, peak 24-hour body temperature after ST elevation AMI probably reflects infarct size rather than a nonspecific inflammatory response.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Function of C-reactive protein.

           T Du Clos (2000)
          C-reactive protein (CRP) is an ancient highly conserved molecule and a member of the pentraxin family of proteins. CRP is secreted by the liver in response to a variety of inflammatory cytokines. Levels of CRP increase very rapidly in response to trauma, inflammation, and infection and decrease just as rapidly with the resolution of the condition. Thus, the measurement of CRP is widely used to monitor various inflammatory states. CRP binds to damaged tissue, to nuclear antigens and to certain pathogenic organisms in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of CRP is felt to be related to its role in the innate immune system. Similar to immunoglobulin (Ig)G, it activates complement, binds to Fc receptors and acts as an opsonin for various pathogens. Interaction of CRP with Fc receptors leads to the generation of proinflammatory cytokines that enhance the inflammatory response. Unlike IgG, which specifically recognizes distinct antigenic epitopes, CRP recognizes altered self and foreign molecules based on pattern recognition. Thus, CRP is though to act as a surveillance molecule for altered self and certain pathogens. This recognition provides early defense and leads to a proinflammatory signal and activation of the humoural, adaptive immune system.
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            Elevation of C-reactive protein in "active" coronary artery disease.

            Unstable angina occurs most commonly in the setting of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), but there is little information concerning the mechanisms responsible for the transition from clinically stable to unstable coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Recently, increased focal infiltration of inflammatory cells into the adventitia of coronary arteries of patients dying suddenly from CAD and activation of circulating neutrophils in patients with unstable angina have been observed. To characterize the presence of inflammation in "active" atherosclerotic lesions, the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in 37 patients admitted to the coronary care unit with unstable angina, 30 patients admitted to the coronary care unit with nonischemic illnesses and 32 patients with stable CAD. CRP levels were significantly elevated (normal less than 0.6 mg/dl) in 90% of the unstable angina group compared to 20% of the coronary care unit group and 13% of the stable angina group. The average CRP values were significantly different (p = 0.001) for the unstable angina group (2.2 +/- 2.9 mg/dl) compared to the coronary care (0.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl) and stable angina (0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/dl) groups. There was a trend for unstable angina patients with ischemic ST-T-wave abnormalities to have higher CRP values (2.6 +/- 3.4) than those without electrocardiographic changes (1.3 +/- 0.9, p = 0.1). The data demonstrate increased levels of an acute phase reactant in unstable angina. These findings suggest that an inflammatory component in "active" angina may contribute to the susceptibility of these patients to vasospasm and thrombosis.
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              Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: expanding the paradigm.

               Paula Hochman (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                June 2005
                10 June 2005
                : 103
                : 4
                : 169-173
                Affiliations
                Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                Article
                84589 Cardiology 2005;103:169–173
                10.1159/000084589
                15785024
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Coronary Care

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