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      Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

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          Abstract

          Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed.

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          Most cited references 103

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          A simple fluorometric assay for lipoperoxide in blood plasma.

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            The role of reactive oxygen and antioxidant species in periodontal tissue destruction.

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              Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

              Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Recent Advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. Critical Issues: The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use. Future Directions: Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others. The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1144–1170.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                13 November 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                1Department of Periodontology and Competence Center for Periodontal Research, University Clinic of Dentistry, Medical University of Vienna , Vienna, Austria
                2Department of Periodontology, Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alexandrina L. Dumitrescu, Private Dental Practice, Romania

                Reviewed by: Marcos Lopez, Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia, Colombia; Luisa Machado Barin, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil; Sema Becerik, Ege University School of Dentistry, Turkey

                *Correspondence: Xiaohui Rausch-Fan xiaohui.rausch-fan@ 123456meduniwien.ac.at

                This article was submitted to Oxidant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2017.00910
                5693842
                Copyright © 2017 Wang, Andrukhov and Rausch-Fan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 112, Pages: 13, Words: 11059
                Categories
                Physiology
                Review

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