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      Synthetic cannabinoid and synthetic cathinone use in Hungary: A literature review


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          In the past decade, novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) gained a significant role on the contemporary drug scene. Synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids are the most common NPSs both in Hungary and worldwide. This study aims to provide a literature review on the Hungarian characteristics related to the use of these NPSs.

          Materials and methods

          Available literature regarding synthetic cathinone and cannabinoid use in Hungary was overviewed and structured into (a) epidemiological studies, (b) studies on the subjective and somatic effects, and (c) studies on toxicity and adverse consequences. Published papers between 2007 and 2017 were identified using PubMed and MATARKA search engines.


          One hundred twenty-six papers were identified and after exclusion, 54 papers remained for in-depth analysis. Most of the reviewed studies were providing epidemiological information regarding the NPSs of our interest. Hungarian prevalence rates were not higher than the European averages. Identified risks of these NPSs consisted of drug-induced psychosis, further severe psychiatric symptoms, and fatal overdose. Injecting of cathinones was also a commonly reported phenomenon, mostly among clients of needle-exchange programs.


          Based on the reviewed body of research, necessary information is available to plan effective prevention and intervention programs and establishes specific therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of NPS users.

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          Most cited references44

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          The effects of synthetic cannabinoids on executive function.

          There is a growing use of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) including synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects similar to those of natural cannabis but the new synthetic cannabinoids are more potent and dangerous and their use has resulted in various adverse effects. The purpose of the study was to assess whether persistent use of synthetic cannabinoids is associating with impairments of executive function in chronic users.
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            Is Open Access

            CB2 Receptor Activation Inhibits Melanoma Cell Transmigration through the Blood-Brain Barrier

            During parenchymal brain metastasis formation tumor cells need to migrate through cerebral endothelial cells, which form the morphological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms of extravasation of tumor cells are highly uncharacterized, but in some aspects recapitulate the diapedesis of leukocytes. Extravasation of leukocytes through the BBB is decreased by the activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2); therefore, in the present study we sought to investigate the role of CB2 receptors in the interaction of melanoma cells with the brain endothelium. First, we identified the presence of CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variant 1) and GPR55 receptors in brain endothelial cells, while melanoma cells expressed CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variants 1 and 2), GPR55 and GPR119. We observed that activation of CB2 receptors with JWH-133 reduced the adhesion of melanoma cells to the layer of brain endothelial cells. JWH-133 decreased the transendothelial migration rate of melanoma cells as well. Our results suggest that changes induced in endothelial cells are critical in the mediation of the effect of CB2 agonists. Our data identify CB2 as a potential target in reducing the number of brain metastastes originating from melanoma.
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              Emerging Risks Due to New Injecting Patterns in Hungary During Austerity Times


                Author and article information

                Developments in Health Sciences
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                13 November 2018
                December 2018
                : 1
                : 3
                : 63-69
                [ 1 ]Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                [ 2 ]Drug Outpatient Centre, Nyírő Gyula National Institute of Psychiatry and Addictions, Budapest, Hungary
                [ 3 ]Faculty of Education and Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Máté Kapitány-Fövény; Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Addictology, Semmelweis University, Vas utca 17, Budapest H-1088, Hungary; E-mail: m.gabrilovics@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 25 September 2017
                : 08 November 2017
                : 17 January 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 50, Pages: 7
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                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                synthetic cannabinoids,Hungary,novel psychoactive substances,literature review,synthetic cathinones


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