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Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

International Journal of Women's Health

Dove Medical Press

cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

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      Abstract

      PurposePapanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana.Sample and methodsThe study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit) regression to determine the associations of demographic variables.ResultsHaving health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%). Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%). Major barriers to screening included what was described as “laziness” for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57%) and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%).ConclusionThere is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana.

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      Most cited references 27

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        Historical Origins of the Health Belief Model

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Ditsapelo M McFarland, Adelphi University, One South Street, Garden City, NY 11530, USA, Tel +1 516 877 4560, Fax +1 516 877 4558, Email dmcfarland@ 123456adelphi.edu
            Journal
            Int J Womens Health
            Int J Womens Health
            International Journal of Women’s Health
            International Journal of Women's Health
            Dove Medical Press
            1179-1411
            2013
            24 October 2013
            : 5
            : 709-716
            24179380
            3810782
            10.2147/IJWH.S50890
            ijwh-5-709
            © 2013 McFarland. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

            The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

            Categories
            Original Research

            Obstetrics & Gynecology

            beliefs, access, barriers, screening, cervical

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