5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Reduced Salivary Mucin Binding and Glycosylation in Older Adults Influences Taste in an In Vitro Cell Model

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background: Taste loss is a significant problem in older adults, affecting quality of life and nutrition. Altered salivary rheology and loss of mucin function may contribute to taste loss by reducing mucosal defences in the oral cavity, impairing sensitivity to oral stimulants. This study aimed to investigate the effects of salivary rheology on taste loss in ageing. Salivary mucin glycosylation and binding to the oral epithelium was investigated in older and younger adults. A cell-based model was utilised to consider the role of saliva in taste loss. Methods: Human subjects aged >60 years ( n = 25) and 18–30 ( n = 30) provided saliva samples which were analysed for viscosity, mucin composition and mucin binding to oral epithelial cells (TR146/MUC1). Oral epithelial cells (TR146/MUC1 and SCC090) provided models for taste receptor activation. Results: Reduced levels and sialylation of MUC7 were evident in saliva of older adults which may lead to reduced viscoelasticity, while viscosity is unaffected. Impaired muco-adhesion of saliva from older adults was also observed. Saliva from older adults facilitated the bitter taste receptor activation less well than saliva from younger adults. The causes of taste dysfunction in older adults are unknown, but this study supports a role of saliva in facilitating the activation of taste receptors.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 51

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Mucin-bacterial interactions in the human oral cavity and digestive tract.

          Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major organic components of the mucus layer, the protective layer covering the epithelial cells in many human and animal organs, including the entire gastro-intestinal tract. Microbes that can associate with mucins benefit from this interaction since they can get available nutrients, experience physico-chemical protection and adhere, resulting in increased residence time. Mucin-degrading microorganisms, which often are found in consortia, have not been extensively characterized as mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that are hard to study because of their size, complexity and heterogeneity. The purpose of this review is to discuss how advances in mucus and mucin research, and insight in the microbial ecology promoted our understanding of mucin degradation. Recent insight is presented in mucin structure and organization, the microorganisms known to use mucin as growth substrate, with a specific attention on Akkermansia muciniphila, and the molecular basis of microbial mucin degradation owing to availability of genome sequences.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Saliva as research material: biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects.

            Whole saliva is a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules which originate from several sources. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva contribute to the numerous functions of saliva in, e.g., speech, maintaining oral and general health, and food processing. Interest in saliva has increased in the last few years for its potential to diagnose viral, bacterial and systemic diseases. The use of saliva as research material may pose particular problems due to its inherent variability and instability. This review describes practical aspects of salivary as research material with emphasis on protein biochemistry and physical chemistry.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides.

              Bitter taste generally causes aversion, which protects humans from ingesting toxic substances. But bitter flavors also contribute to the palatability of food and beverages, thereby influencing nutritional habits in humans. Although many studies have examined bitter taste, the underlying receptor mechanisms remain poorly understood. Anatomical, functional and genetic data from rodents suggest the existence of a family of receptors that are responsive to bitter compounds. Here we report that a human member of this family, TAS2R16, is present in taste receptor cells on the tongue and is activated by bitter beta-glucopyranosides. Responses to these phytonutrients show a similar concentration dependence and desensitization in transfected cells and in experiments assessing taste perception in humans. Bitter compounds consisting of a hydrophobic residue attached to glucose by a beta-glycosidic bond activate TAS2R16. Thus, TAS2R16 links the recognition of a specific chemical structure to the perception of bitter taste. If the ability of TAS2R16 to detect substances with common molecular properties is typical of the bitter receptor family, it may explain how a few receptors permit the perception of numerous bitter substances.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                24 September 2019
                October 2019
                : 11
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Salivary Research-Centre for Host-Microbiome Interactions, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9RT, UK
                [2 ]Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: r.g.pushpass@ 123456reading.ac.uk ; Tel.: +44-(0)20-7848-6035
                Article
                nutrients-11-02280
                10.3390/nu11102280
                6835954
                31554163
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                saliva, taste, ageing, rheology, mucin

                Comments

                Comment on this article