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Spotlight on Biomimetic Systems Based on Lyotropic Liquid Crystal

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      The behavior of lyotropic biomimetic systems in drug delivery was reviewed. These behaviors are influenced by drug properties, the initial water content, type of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC), swell ability, drug loading rate, the presence of ions with higher or less kosmotropic or chaotropic force, and the electrostatic interaction between the drug and the lipid bilayers. The in vivo interaction between LCC—drugs, and the impact on the bioavailability of drugs, was reviewed. The LLC with a different architecture can be formed by the self-assembly of lipids in aqueous medium, and can be tuned by the structures and physical properties of the emulsion. These LLC lamellar phase, cubic phase, and hexagonal phase, possess fascinating viscoelastic properties, which make them useful as a dispersion technology, and a highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix for drug delivery. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates a minimum toxicity and thus, they are used for various routes of administration. This review is not intended to provide a comprehensive overview, but focuses on the advantages over non modified conventional materials and LLC biomimetic properties.

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      Cell membranes display a tremendous complexity of lipids and proteins designed to perform the functions cells require. To coordinate these functions, the membrane is able to laterally segregate its constituents. This capability is based on dynamic liquid-liquid immiscibility and underlies the raft concept of membrane subcompartmentalization. Lipid rafts are fluctuating nanoscale assemblies of sphingolipid, cholesterol, and proteins that can be stabilized to coalesce, forming platforms that function in membrane signaling and trafficking. Here we review the evidence for how this principle combines the potential for sphingolipid-cholesterol self-assembly with protein specificity to selectively focus membrane bioactivity.
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            Author and article information

            [1 ]Laboratory of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology, University of Sorocaba (UNISO), Sorocaba, SP 18078-005, Brazil; julianafsz@ (J.F.d.S.); katiusca.pontes@ (K.d.S.P.); thaisfrancine1@ (T.F.R.A.); venancio_mt@ (V.A.A.); marciarebelo@ (M.d.A.R.)
            [2 ]Laboratory of Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology and Environmental Monitoring (PPGBMA), University of São Carlos (UFSCAR), Sorocaba, SP 18052-780, Brazil; mahausen@
            [3 ]Laboratory of Biomaterials (LABIOMAT), Pontificial University Catholic (PUC), Sorocaba, SP 18030-070, Brazil
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: marco.chaud@ ; Tel.: +55-15-2101-7149
            Role: Academic Editor
            Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
            07 March 2017
            March 2017
            : 22
            : 3
            (Academic Editor)
            © 2017 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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