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      Endosomal trafficking defects in patient cells with KIAA1109 biallelic variants


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          The uncharacterized gene KIAA1 109 has recently been associated with a congenital neurological malformation disorder that variably presents with arthrogryposis, craniofacial and/or cardiac abnormalities. We have identified two additional patients with compound heterozygous KIAA1109 variants presenting with the same neurological malformations. The mechanism whereby KIAA1109 loss of function causes this spectrum of disorders was the primary focus of our studies. We hypothesized that KIAA1109 function could be conserved relative to the fly gene tweek and examined endocytosis and endosome recycling in patient fibroblasts. Furthermore, we examined the structure of the cytoskeleton and cilia based on functional overlap with endocytosis and several known etiologies for neuronal migration disorders. Utilizing primary dermal fibroblasts from one patient and a healthy donor, we performed immunofluorescence and endocytosis assays to examine the endosomal, cytoskeletal, and ciliary cellular phenotypes. We found notable abnormalities in endosomal trafficking and endosome recycling pathways. We also observed changes in the actin cytoskeleton and cilia structural dynamics. We conclude that the function of KIAA1109 in humans may indeed overlap with the function of the Drosophila ortholog, resulting in perturbations to endosomal trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton. These alterations have ripple effects, altering many pathways that are critical for proper neuronal migration and embryonic development.

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          Newly identified genetic risk variants for celiac disease related to the immune response.

          Our genome-wide association study of celiac disease previously identified risk variants in the IL2-IL21 region. To identify additional risk variants, we genotyped 1,020 of the most strongly associated non-HLA markers in an additional 1,643 cases and 3,406 controls. Through joint analysis including the genome-wide association study data (767 cases, 1,422 controls), we identified seven previously unknown risk regions (P < 5 x 10(-7)). Six regions harbor genes controlling immune responses, including CCR3, IL12A, IL18RAP, RGS1, SH2B3 (nsSNP rs3184504) and TAGAP. Whole-blood IL18RAP mRNA expression correlated with IL18RAP genotype. Type 1 diabetes and celiac disease share HLA-DQ, IL2-IL21, CCR3 and SH2B3 risk regions. Thus, this extensive genome-wide association follow-up study has identified additional celiac disease risk variants in relevant biological pathways.
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            A genome-wide association study for celiac disease identifies risk variants in the region harboring IL2 and IL21.

            We tested 310,605 SNPs for association in 778 individuals with celiac disease and 1,422 controls. Outside the HLA region, the most significant finding (rs13119723; P = 2.0 x 10(-7)) was in the KIAA1109-TENR-IL2-IL21 linkage disequilibrium block. We independently confirmed association in two further collections (strongest association at rs6822844, 24 kb 5' of IL21; meta-analysis P = 1.3 x 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.63), suggesting that genetic variation in this region predisposes to celiac disease.
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              Generation of transgene-free lung disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells using a single excisable lentiviral stem cell cassette.

              The development of methods to achieve efficient reprogramming of human cells while avoiding the permanent presence of reprogramming transgenes represents a critical step toward the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for clinical purposes, such as disease modeling or reconstituting therapies. Although several methods exist for generating iPSC free of reprogramming transgenes from mouse cells or neonatal normal human tissues, a sufficiently efficient reprogramming system is still needed to achieve the widespread derivation of disease-specific iPSC from humans with inherited or degenerative diseases. Here, we report the use of a humanized version of a single lentiviral "stem cell cassette" vector to accomplish efficient reprogramming of normal or diseased skin fibroblasts obtained from humans of virtually any age. Simultaneous transfer of either three or four reprogramming factors into human target cells using this single vector allows derivation of human iPSC containing a single excisable viral integration that on removal generates human iPSC free of integrated transgenes. As a proof of principle, here we apply this strategy to generate >100 lung disease-specific iPSC lines from individuals with a variety of diseases affecting the epithelial, endothelial, or interstitial compartments of the lung, including cystic fibrosis, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency-related emphysema, scleroderma, and sickle-cell disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that human iPSC generated with this approach have the ability to robustly differentiate into definitive endoderm in vitro, the developmental precursor tissue of lung epithelia.

                Author and article information

                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                07 January 2019
                March 2019
                07 January 2019
                : 6
                : 1
                : 56-67
                [a ]Inova Translational Medicine Institute, Inova Health System, Fairfax, VA, United States
                [b ]Department of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States
                [c ]Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, United States
                [d ]Department of Oncology and Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. megan.kane@ 123456inova.org
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Thierry.vilboux@ 123456inova.org
                © 2019 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 10 August 2018
                : 27 December 2018

                cilia,endocytosis,kiaa1109,neurological malformation,vesicular trafficking


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