The braconid wasp subfamily Doryctinae mainly comprises idiobiont ectoparasitoids of other insect larvae. In recent years, however, members of a few genera have been discovered to be associated with galls from various unrelated host plant families, with some of these being gall inducers whereas others are suspected as being predators of gallers. Because of their considerable morphological differences, these gall-associated taxa traditionally have been placed in separate tribes or even in other subfamilies. In this study, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships among representatives of a number of different doryctine genera, including five of its seven gall-associated genera using two genetic markers. Here we analyzed the length-variable 28S sequence data based on secondary structure both excising the unalignable regions and recoding them according to indel length. In addition, multiple alignments were carried out with a range of gap-opening and extension parameters. The combined (28S+CO1) phylogenetic hypotheses obtained, both excluding and recoding the unalignable regions, recover a clade comprising the five gall-associated genera, and most of the analyses using multiple alignments also support this relationship. These results support a scenario in which secondary phytophagy evolves from initially attacking primary gall-forming hosts. The relationships recovered are also more congruent with a model that explains the macroevolution of insect plant association in the Doryctinae as reflecting geographic proximity rather than host plant relationships. Further, our phylogenetic hypotheses consistently show that one of the main morphological features employed in the higher level classification of the Doryctinae is actually highly homoplastic.