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      Influence of Plasma Exchange on Serum Levels of Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules in ANCA-Positive Renal Vasculitis

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          Background: Increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the organ damage in active antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen (ANCA)-positive renal vasculitis. Plasma exchange (PE) may influence the activity of vasculitis not only by removing pathogenic autoantibodies, but also by lowering the serum levels of circulating cytokines. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were measured using ELISA in 10 patients with active ANCA-positive renal vasculitis (5 patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis, WG, and 5 patients with microscopic polyangiitis, MPA) during the course of therapeutic PE. Cytokines and adhesion molecules were measured in samples of serum obtained at the beginning and at the end of the 1st, 3rd and 5th PE and in samples of filtrate obtained during the same PE. Results: In comparison with controls, patients with ANCA had higher serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-8, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 before the 1st PE. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were increased in patients with MPA, and the serum levels of all the cytokines and adhesion molecules measured in patients with WG were increased. At the end of the PE course there were decreases in the serum levels of IL-1ra and VCAM-1 in ANCA patients and IL-1ra and ICAM-1 in WG patients. Single PE in ANCA patients led only to a decrease in serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. On the other hand, there was no change in serum levels of IL-1β and IL-8, and the serum levels of IL-1ra and IL-6 even increased at the end of a single PE, in spite of high levels of all cytokines and adhesion molecules in the plasma filtrate. Conclusion: Serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules decrease after PE, but serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines are not reduced even by a PE course. Removal of these substances by PE is obviously counteracted by their increased production, possibly further stimulated by the contact of blood with the synthetic membrane. The insufficient influence of PE on the elimination of proinflammatory cytokines may partially explain its limited effect in some patients with ANCA-positive renal vasculitis.

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          Blocking IL-1: interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro.

          Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that shock, arthritis, osteoporosis, colitis, leukemia, diabetes, wasting and atherosclerosis are mediated, in part, by interleukin 1 (IL-1). Inhibition of this cytokine has been a strategy for studying disease and for new drug development. A naturally-occurring IL-1 inhibitor (IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-1ra) that blocks binding of IL-1 to its receptors has been cloned and produced in recombinant organisms. IL-1ra reduces the severity of sepsis, colitis, arthritis and diabetes in animals and is presently being tested in humans with arthritis, shock and myelogenous leukemia.
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            Antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule 1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 prevent crescent formation in rat autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

            In patients with glomerulonephritis widespread crescents are associated with a poor prognosis. Crescent formation appears to depend on the migration of mononuclear cells into Bowman's space, and therefore the interaction between leukocytes and glomerular endothelium may be a critical event in the genesis of crescents. We performed the present study to determine the effects of mouse monoclonal antibodies to the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in a model of crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto rats, induced by immunization with bovine glomerular basement membrane (GBM). By 10-14 d after immunization, the rats had developed circulating anti-GBM antibodies, reactive with the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen (the Goodpasture antigen), accompanied by proteinuria, accumulation of rat immunoglobulin (Ig)G in the GBM, increased expression of ICAM-1 by glomerular endothelial cells, infiltration of glomerular tufts with LFA-1+ T cells and monocyte/macrophages, and early crescents. At 5 wk all rats had diffuse fibrocellular crescents, glomerular sclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage. All rats developed severe renal insufficiency and died by 5 or 6 wk. The administration of monoclonal antibodies to rat ICAM-1 and LFA-1 markedly decreased the severity of the renal disease. In a group of rats injected three times a week with the monoclonal antibodies, from 2 d before immunization with GBM to day 14, glomerular abnormalities and proteinuria were virtually absent at day 14; even at 5 wk glomerular disease was quite mild, with only slight crescent formation and with only a mild decrease in renal function. When treatment was continued until 5 wk, the beneficial effects were even more marked, with virtual absence of crescents and with preservation of normal renal function. In a group of rats in which treatment was initiated on day 14, shortly after the appearance of glomerular abnormalities, progression of the disease was appreciably retarded, and the decrease in renal function was inhibited. The kidneys of rats treated from days -2 to 14 with antibodies to ICAM-1 and LFA-1 showed bright linear staining for rat IgG along the GBM, which did not differ in intensity from that seen in untreated rats. Furthermore, the titers of anti-GBM antibodies at 2 wk in treated rats were not lower than that seen in most of the untreated rats. There was, however, moderate reduction of anti-GBM antibodies at 5 wk in the treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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              Interaction of macrophages with fibrous materials in vitro

               S Bernatchez (1996)

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                April 1998
                01 April 1998
                : 16
                : 2
                : 72-80
                a 1st Department of Medicine, b 3rd Department of Medicine, c Institute of Clinical Immunology, d 1st Institute of Pathology, and e Institute of Biochemistry, 1st School of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
                14316 Blood Purif 1998;16:72–80
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Tables: 6, References: 49, Pages: 9
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