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      The Additive Effects of the Active Component of Grapefruit Juice (Naringenin) and Antiarrhythmic Drugs on HERG Inhibition

      , , ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Torsade de pointes, Antiarrhythmic agents, Arrhythmia, Ion channels

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          Abstract

          Background: Grapefruit juice causes significant QT prolongation in healthy volunteers and naringenin has been identified as the most potent human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel blocker among several dietary flavonoids. The interaction between naringenin and I<sub>Kr</sub>-blocking antiarrhythmic drugs has not been studied. We evaluated the effect of combining naringenin with I<sub>Kr</sub>-inhibiting antiarrhythmic drugs on cardiac I<sub>Kr</sub>. Methods and Results: I<sub>Kr</sub> current was studied by using HERG expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the two-electrode voltage clamp technique was employed. Antiarrhythmic drugs (azimilide, amiodarone, dofetilide and quinidine) were tested. Experiments were performed at room temperature. Naringenin blocked HERG current dose dependently with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 173.3 ± 3.1 µ M. Naringenin 100 µ M alone inhibited HERG current by 31 ± 6%, and this inhibitory effect was increased with coadministration of 1 or 10 µ M antiarrhythmic drugs. When 100 µ M naringenin was added to antiarrhythmic drugs, greater HERG inhibition was demonstrated, compared to the current inhibition caused by antiarrhythmic drugs alone. Addition of naringenin significantly increased current inhibition (p < 0.05). Conclusions: There is an additive inhibitory effect on HERG current when naringenin is combined with I<sub>Kr</sub>-blocking antiarrhythmic drugs. This additive HERG inhibition could pose an increased risk of arrhythmias by increasing repolarization delay and possible repolarization heterogeneity.

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          Most cited references 20

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          HERG, a human inward rectifier in the voltage-gated potassium channel family

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            Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression.

            The increase in oral availability of felodipine and other commonly used medications when taken with grapefruit juice has been assumed to be due to inhibition of CYP3A4, a cytochrome P450 that is present in liver and intestine. To evaluate the effect of repeated grapefruit juice ingestion on CYP3A4 expression, 10 healthy men were given 8 oz of grapefruit juice three times a day for 6 d. Before and after receiving grapefruit juice, small bowel and colon mucosal biopsies were obtained endoscopically, oral felodipine kinetics were determined, and liver CYP3A4 activity was measured with the [14C N-methyl] erythromycin breath test in each subject. Grapefruit juice did not alter liver CYP3A4 activity, colon levels of CYP3A5, or small bowel concentrations of P-glycoprotein, villin, CYP1A1, and CYP2D6. In contrast, the concentration of CYP3A4 in small bowel epithelia (enterocytes) fell 62% (P = 0.0006) with no corresponding change in CYP3A4 mRNA levels. In addition, enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 measured before grapefruit juice consumption correlated with the increase in Cmax when felodipine was taken with either the 1st or the 16th glass of grapefruit juice relative to water (r = 0. 67, P = 0.043, and r = 0.71, P = 0.022, respectively). We conclude that a mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on oral felodipine kinetics is its selective downregulation of CYP3A4 in the small intestine.
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              Incidence and clinical features of the quinidine-associated long QT syndrome: implications for patient care.

               R K Primm,  D Roden,  R Woosley (1986)
              Quinidine therapy is one of the most common causes of the acquired long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes. In reviewing clinical data in 24 patients with the quinidine-associated long QT syndrome, 20 of whom had torsade de pointes, we have delineated several heretofore unreported or underemphasized features. (1) This adverse drug reaction occurred either in patients who were being treated for frequent nonsustained ventricular arrhythmias or for atrial fibrillation or flutter. (2) In patients being treated for atrial fibrillation, torsade de pointes occurred only after conversion to sinus rhythm. (3) Although most patients developed the syndrome within days of starting quinidine, four had torsade de pointes during long-term quinidine therapy, usually in association with hypokalemia. (4) Because of the large experience with this entity at our institution, we have been able to estimate the risk as at least 1.5% per year. (5) Twenty of the 24 patients had at least one major, easily identifiable, associated risk factor including serum potassium below 3.5 mEq/L (four); serum potassium between 3.5 and 3.9 mEq/L (nine); high-grade atrioventricular block (four); and marked underlying, (unrecognized) QT prolongation (two). Plasma quinidine concentrations were low, being at or below the lower limit of the therapeutic range in half of patients. The ECG features typically included absence of marked QRS widening, marked QT prolongation (by definition), and a stereotypic series of cycle length changes just prior to the onset of torsade de pointes. Torsade de pointes started after the T wave of a markedly prolonged QT interval that followed a cycle that had been markedly prolonged (usually by a post ectopic pause).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                June 2008
                04 December 2007
                : 110
                : 3
                : 145-152
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill., USA
                Article
                111923 Cardiology 2008;110:145–152
                10.1159/000111923
                18057881
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 33, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

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