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      Characterization of Synthetic Polymers via Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry

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          Abstract

          There are many techniques that can be employed in the characterization of synthetic homopolymers, but few provide as useful of information for end group analysis as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This tutorial demonstrates methods for optimization of the sample preparation, spectral acquisition, and data analysis of synthetic polymers using MALDI-TOF MS. Critical parameters during sample preparation include the selection of the matrix, identification of an appropriate cationization salt, and tuning the relative proportions of the matrix, cation, and analyte. The acquisition parameters, such as mode (linear or reflector), polarization (positive or negative), acceleration voltage, and delay time, are also important. Given some knowledge of the chemistry involved to synthesize the polymer and optimizing both the data acquisition parameters and the sample preparation conditions, spectra should be obtained with sufficient resolution and mass accuracy to enable the unambiguous determination of the end groups of most homopolymers (masses below 10,000) in addition to the repeat unit mass and the overall molecular weight distribution. Though demonstrated on a limited set of polymers, these general techniques are applicable to a much wider range of synthetic polymers for determining mass distributions, though end group determination is only possible for homopolymers with narrow dispersity.

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          Most cited references 31

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          1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Azides and Alkynes: A Universal Ligation Tool in Polymer and Materials Science

          In 2001, Sharpless and co-workers introduced "click" chemistry, a new approach in organic synthesis that involves a handful of almost perfect chemical reactions. Among these carefully selected reactions, Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions were shown to be the most effective and versatile and thus became the prime example of click chemistry. Hence, these long-neglected reactions were suddenly re-established in organic synthesis and, in particular, have gained popularity in materials science. The number of publications dealing with click chemistry has grown exponentially over the last two years. The Minireview discusses whether click chemistry is a miracle tool or an ephemeral trend.
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            An efficient route to well-defined macrocyclic polymers via "click" cyclization.

            Polystyrene macrocycles have been prepared from ATRP precursors by modification of the terminal bromide to an azide, followed by "click" cyclization with a pendant alkyne from the initiator. This route offers exceptional control over the size and polydispersity of the macrocyclic polymers, as well as providing tolerance to a number of functional groups.
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              Thiol–ene “click” reactions and recent applications in polymer and materials synthesis: a first update

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Vis Exp
                J Vis Exp
                JoVE
                Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE
                MyJove Corporation
                1940-087X
                2018
                10 June 2018
                10 June 2018
                : 136
                Affiliations
                1Department of Chemistry, Tulane University
                Author notes

                Correspondence to: Scott M. Grayson at sgrayson@ 123456tulane.edu

                Article
                57174
                10.3791/57174
                6101691
                29939185
                Copyright © 2018, Journal of Visualized Experiments

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

                Categories
                Chemistry

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