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      Evolving concepts in the pathogenesis of uraemic cardiomyopathy

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      Nature Reviews Nephrology

      Springer Nature

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          Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease.

          Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus metabolism and is a strong predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. FGF23 is thought to be an early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We measured FGF23 in baseline samples from 3879 patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which is a diverse cohort of patients with CKD stage 2-4. Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence, FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels.
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            Serum indoxyl sulfate is associated with vascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients.

            As a major component of uremic syndrome, cardiovascular disease is largely responsible for the high mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have evidenced an association between serum levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS, a protein-bound uremic toxin) and vascular alterations. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum IS, vascular calcification, vascular stiffness, and mortality in a cohort of CKD patients. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; 60% male) at different stages of CKD (8% at stage 2, 26.5% at stage 3, 26.5% at stage 4, 7% at stage 5, and 32% at stage 5D) were enrolled. Baseline IS levels presented an inverse relationship with renal function and a direct relationship with aortic calcification and pulse wave velocity. During the follow-up period (605 +/- 217 d), 25 patients died, mostly because of cardiovascular events (n = 18). In crude survival analyses, the highest IS tertile was a powerful predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The predictive power of IS for death was maintained after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, albumin, hemoglobin, phosphate, and aortic calcification. The study presented here indicates that IS may have a significant role in the vascular disease and higher mortality observed in CKD patients.
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              Fibroblast growth factor 23 and risks of mortality and end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

              A high level of the phosphate-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease, but little is known about its relationship with adverse outcomes in the much larger population of patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To evaluate FGF-23 as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. A prospective study of 3879 participants with chronic kidney disease stages 2 through 4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort between June 2003 and September 2008. All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease. At study enrollment, the mean (SD) estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 42.8 (13.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and the median FGF-23 level was 145.5 RU/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 96-239 reference unit [RU]/mL). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR, 2.5-4.4 years), 266 participants died (20.3/1000 person-years) and 410 reached end-stage renal disease (33.0/1000 person-years). In adjusted analyses, higher levels of FGF-23 were independently associated with a greater risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], per SD of natural log-transformed FGF-23, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.7). Mortality risk increased by quartile of FGF-23: the HR was 1.3 (95% CI, 0.8-2.2) for the second quartile, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.3) for the third quartile, and 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.1) for the fourth quartile. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 was independently associated with significantly higher risk of end-stage renal disease among participants with an estimated GFR between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 1.3 per SD of FGF-23 natural log-transformed FGF-23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.6) and 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or higher (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), but not less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Elevated FGF-23 is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease in patients with relatively preserved kidney function and for mortality across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                January 21 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41581-018-0101-8
                © 2019

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