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      Methods for producing an easily assembled zinc-air battery

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          Abstract

          Zinc-air batteries are considered as the promising alternative to conventional power sources and have received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, good safety, environmental friendliness, and potential for low material costs. The design and production of zinc-air batteries is critical to accelerate the commercialization for extending the application range. Herein, we proposed a method for producing plate-type primary zinc-air batteries which apply zinc foil as an example. The proposed method includes the design of an easily assembled zinc-air battery configuration, the preparation of air cathodes and assembly of zinc-air battery. In addition, the galvanostatic discharge performance of the assembled non-flow primary zinc-air battery was tested at a current density of 10 mA cm –2. The method can be applied for the production of commercial zinc-air batteries for laboratory research and industrial manufacture for electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and energy storage devices.

          • The preparation method for components of zinc-air battery configuration and air cathodes was developed.
          • The assembly of the zinc-air battery was proposed.
          • Direct evaluation of discharge performance of the zinc-air batteries produced by the method.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Ethanol as an electrolyte additive for alkaline zinc-air flow batteries

          Zinc-air flow batteries exhibit high energy density and offer several appealing advantages. However, their low efficiency of zinc utilization resulted from passivation and corrosion of the zinc anodes has limited their broad application. In this work, ethanol, which is considered as an environmentally friendly solvent, is examined as an electrolyte additive to potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous electrolyte to improve electrochemical performance of the batteries. Besides, the effects of adding different percentages of ethanol (0–50% v/v) to 8 M KOH aqueous electrolyte were investigated and discussed. Cyclic voltammograms revealed that the presence of 5–10% v/v ethanol is attributed to the enhancement of zinc dissolution and the hindrance of zinc anode passivation. Also, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that adding 5–10% v/v ethanol could effectively suppress the formation of passivating layers on the active surface of the zinc anodes. Though the addition of ethanol increased solution resistance and hence slightly decreased the discharge potential of the batteries, a significant enhancement of discharge capacity and energy density could be sought. Also, galvanostatic discharge results indicated that the battery using 10% v/v ethanol electrolyte exhibited the highest electrochemical performance with 30% increase in discharge capacity and 16% increase in specific energy over that of KOH electrolyte without ethanol.
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            The Influence of Dimethyl Sulfoxide as Electrolyte Additive on Anodic Dissolution of Alkaline Zinc-Air Flow Battery

            The present work describes the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in KOH aqueous electrolyte on the performance of a zinc-air flow battery. Aqueous electrolytes containing 7 M KOH and (0 to 20)% v/v DMSO were studied revealing a critical role of DMSO on the dissolution and deposition of zinc. The anodic zinc dissolution process was studied via cyclic voltammetry, Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of DMSO showed improved zinc dissolution performance with the highest peak of zinc dissolution being the electrolyte containing 5% v/v DMSO. Tafel analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in polarization resistance and an increase in corrosion rate due to the introduction of DMSO to the electrolyte. This suggests that DMSO has the ability to suspend zinc oxide in the electrolyte, thus preventing passivation of the zinc surface. EIS results revealed that by adding DMSO to the electrolyte, charge transfer resistance increased. This is attributed to the formation of passive layers having arisen from DMSO adsorption, the formation of zincate ions in the vicinity of the zinc surface, and the deposition of discharged products. A difference in Nyquist plots was observed for 20% v/v DMSO/KOH and 0% v/v DMSO/KOH electrolytes implying non-Debye relaxation behavior taking place due to the surface effects. The electrolytes were implemented in a zinc-air flow battery. Maximum power densities of 130 mW/cm2 (5% v/v DMSO) and 125 mW/cm2 (20% v/v DMSO) were obtained and were observed to be about 43% and 28% higher than that of the DMSO-free electrolyte. Results indicated that when 20% v/v DMSO was added to KOH solution, there was 67% zinc utilization efficiency (550 mAh/g) which provided 20% improvement in discharge capacity. Further, the battery with 20% v/v DMSO demonstrated excellent cyclability. Overall, DMSO shows great promise for enhancement of zinc dissolution/deposition in zinc-air batteries.
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              Recent advances and challenges in divalent and multivalent metal electrodes for metal–air batteries

               Y. Sun,  X LIU,  Y JIANG (2019)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MethodsX
                MethodsX
                MethodsX
                Elsevier
                2215-0161
                21 June 2020
                2020
                21 June 2020
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [a ]Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
                [b ]Joint School of National University of Singapore and Tianjin University, International Campus of Tianjin University, Binhai New City, Fuzhou 350207, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. cheng.zhong@ 123456tju.edu.cn
                Article
                S2215-0161(20)30193-X 100973
                10.1016/j.mex.2020.100973
                7330063
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Energy

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