Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface system whose chore mechanisms are tear film instability, inflammation, tear hyperosmolarity and epithelial damage. In recent years, novel therapies specifically targeting inflammation and oxidative stress are being investigated and used in this field. Therefore, an increasing body of evidence supporting the possible role of different micronutrients and nutraceutical products for the treatment of ocular surface diseases is now available. In the present review, we analyzed in detail the effects on ocular surface of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A, B12, C, D, selenium, curcumin and flavonoids. Among these, the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in ameliorating DED signs and symptoms is supported by robust scientific evidence. Further long-term clinical trials are warranted to confirm the safety and efficacy of the supplementation of the other micronutrients and nutraceuticals.