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      Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced, Toll-like Receptor 4–dependent T Helper Cell Type 2 Responses to Inhaled Antigen


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          Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease initiated and directed by T helper cells type 2 (Th2). The mechanism involved in generation of Th2 responses to inert inhaled antigens, however, is unknown. Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other microbial products can influence the development and severity of asthma. However, the mechanism by which LPS influences asthma pathogenesis remains undefined. Although it is known that signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLR) is required for adaptive T helper cell type 1 (Th1) responses, it is unclear if TLRs are needed for Th2 priming. Here, we report that low level inhaled LPS signaling through TLR4 is necessary to induce Th2 responses to inhaled antigens in a mouse model of allergic sensitization. The mechanism by which LPS signaling results in Th2 sensitization involves the activation of antigen-containing dendritic cells. In contrast to low levels, inhalation of high levels of LPS with antigen results in Th1 responses. These studies suggest that the level of LPS exposure can determine the type of inflammatory response generated and provide a potential mechanistic explanation of epidemiological data on endotoxin exposure and asthma prevalence.

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          Most cited references14

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          Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus.

          The innate immune system contributes to the earliest phase of the host defense against foreign organisms and has both soluble and cellular pattern recognition receptors for microbial products. Two important members of this receptor group, CD14 and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pattern recognition receptors, are essential for the innate immune response to components of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria, spirochetes and yeast. We now find that these receptors function in an antiviral response as well. The innate immune response to the fusion protein of an important respiratory pathogen of humans, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), was mediated by TLR4 and CD14. RSV persisted longer in the lungs of infected TLR4-deficient mice compared to normal mice. Thus, a common receptor activation pathway can initiate innate immune responses to both bacterial and viral pathogens.
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            Toll-like receptors control activation of adaptive immune responses.

            Mechanisms that control the activation of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. It has been suggested that the initiation of adaptive immune responses is controlled by innate immune recognition. Mammalian Toll-like receptors play an essential role in innate immunity by recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiating the activation of NF-kappaB and other signaling pathways through the adapter protein, MyD88. Here we show that MyD88-deficient mice have a profound defect in the activation of antigen-specific T helper type 1 (TH1) but not TH2 immune responses. These results suggest that distinct pathways of the innate immune system control activation of the two effector arms of adaptive immunity.
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              T Helper 1 Cells and Interferon γ Regulate Allergic Airway Inflammation and Mucus Production

              CD4 T helper (Th) type 1 and Th2 cells have been identified in the airways of asthmatic patients. Th2 cells are believed to contribute to pathogenesis of the disease, but the role of Th1 cells is not well defined. In a mouse model, we previously reported that transferred T cell receptor–transgenic Th2 cells activated in the respiratory tract led to airway inflammation with many of the pathologic features of asthma, including airway eosinophilia and mucus production. Th1 cells caused inflammation with none of the pathology associated with asthma. In this report, we investigate the role of Th1 cells in regulating airway inflammation. When Th1 and Th2 cells are transferred together into recipient mice, there is a marked reduction in airway eosinophilia and mucus staining. To address the precise role of Th1 cells, we asked (i), Are Th2-induced responses inhibited by interferon (IFN)-γ? and (ii) Can Th1 cells induce eosinophilia and mucus in the absence of IFN-γ? In IFN-γ receptor−/− recipient mice exposed to inhaled antigen, the inhibitory effects of Th1 cells on both airway eosinophilia and mucus production were abolished. In the absence of IFN-γ receptor signaling, Th1 cells induced mucus but not eosinophilia. Thus, we have identified new regulatory pathways for mucus production; mucus can be induced by Th2 and non-Th2 inflammatory responses in the lung, both of which are inhibited by IFN-γ. The blockade of eosinophilia and mucus production by IFN-γ likely occurs through different inhibitory pathways that are activated downstream of Th2 cytokine secretion and require IFN-γ signaling in tissue of recipient mice.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                16 December 2002
                : 196
                : 12
                : 1645-1651
                [1 ]Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520
                [2 ]Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Kim Bottomly, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520. Phone: 203-785-5391; Fax: 203-737-1765; E-mail: kim.bottomly@ 123456yale.edu

                Copyright © 2002, The Rockefeller University Press
                : 5 August 2002
                : 4 November 2002
                : 4 November 2002
                Brief Definitive Report

                t cell,dendritic cell,asthma,lung,toll-like receptor
                t cell, dendritic cell, asthma, lung, toll-like receptor


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