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      The influence of two forms of chlorhexidine on the accuracy of contemporary electronic apex locators

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          Abstract

          Background

          Accurate determination of working length (WL) is crucial for the success of endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate gel and 2% hypochlorite solution on the accuracy of two devices: the Raypex 5 and the ApexDal.

          Methods

          Twenty-nine single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The crowns were cut horizontally and embedded in an alginate mass. In each tooth, six endodontic measurements were made using two electronic apex locators (EALs): a Raypex 5 and an ApexDal. For each EAL, measurements were taken with the following products: 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX-S group), 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G group) and 2% NaOCl (NaOCl group). After performing an endodontic measurement, the endodontic instruments were stabilized with flow resin composite. Afterwards, the roots were removed from the alginate mass, and the apical one-third of each root was cut lengthways to recover the canal system. Last, the distance between the file tip and the apical foramen was measured under a microscope at 60 x magnification.

          Results

          Statistically significant differences were found between CHX-S and NaOCl and CHX-G and NaOCl, but no significant differences were detected between CHX-S and CHX-G during the testing of both devices. No statistically significant differences were observed between the Raypex 5 and ApexDal for all intracanal media tested.

          Conclusion

          The EALs Raypex 5 and ApexDal had higher accuracy in the anatomical foramen of the root containing chlorhexidine in the gel or in the solution form than in the canal containing sodium hypochlorite.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Antimicrobial activity of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate separately and combined, as endodontic irrigants.

          Sodium hypochlorite irrigant is known to be toxic to periapical tissues. Chlorhexidine gluconate, a safer and effective antimicrobial irrigant, is not known to dissolve pulpal tissues. To obtain their optimal properties, their combined action within the root canal was evaluated. Ten single rooted nonvital anterior teeth were irrigated using either 2.5% sodium hypochlorite alone, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate alone, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate combined within the root canal, or 0.9% saline, respectively. Microbiological samples for culture and Gram's staining were taken before and proceeding irrigation. This study indicates that the use of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate combined within the root canal resulted in the greatest percentage reduction of postirrigant positive cultures. This may be due to formation of "chlorhexidine chloride," which increases the ionizing capacity of the chlorhexidine molecule. This reduction was significant compared to use of sodium hypochlorite alone but not significant compared to use of chlorhexidine gluconate alone.
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            Ex vivo accuracy of three electronic apex locators: Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator and ProPex.

            To compare ex vivo the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX, Elements Diagnostic Unit and Apex Locator and ProPex. Electronic working length determination was carried out in 40 extracted teeth using an ex vivo model. After access preparation, a first operator determined the reference length (AL) for each tooth under a 30x stereomicroscope using the apical constriction as the apical landmark. All teeth were then measured with each EAL and the results obtained were compared with the corresponding AL. The AL was subtracted from the electronically determined distance. The measurements exceeding the AL were recorded as positive (long) and the measurements short of the AL were recorded as negative. Data were analyzed using the Friedman Test and Tukey multiple range test for nonparametric correlation amongst groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Comparing the differences between measurements obtained with the three EALs and those obtained with the stereomicroscope, the percentage of measurements within +/-0.5 mm of the AL was 97.37% (84.22% within 0.5 mm short of AL) for the Root ZX, 94.28% (88.57% within 0.5 mm short of AL) for the Elements and 100% (35.9% within 0.5 mm short of AL) for the ProPex. The mean difference between the AL and the lengths measured by the Root ZX, the Elements and the ProPex were, respectively, -0.157 +/- 0.228, -0.103 +/- 0.359 and 0.307 +/- 0.271 mm. The results of the present study confirm that the EALs determined the canal length within +/-0.5 mm from the apical constriction in the majority of cases. The majority of the ProPex readings were long.
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              Accuracy of a new apex locator: an in vitro study.

              The purpose of this study was to test in an in vitro model the accuracy of a Bingo 1020 electronic apex locator, to compare the results to those of a well known apex locator, Root ZX, as well as to those of the radiographic method of tooth length determination. A total of 120 extracted teeth, preserved in Thymol solution and kept refrigerated, was used for the study. The experiment was performed on single-rooted teeth and on one-root canal, chosen randomly, in multirooted teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups of 10 teeth each. After access preparation, the actual length (AL) was measured. The teeth were embedded in an alginate model specially developed for testing apex locators. Electronic tooth length measurements (EL) were carried out prior to root canal preparation using the two electronic apex locators (EAL) - Root ZX and Bingo 1020; three measurements were taken and an average computed. After the third measurement, the file was left in the root canal and a periapical radiograph was taken. The radiographic length (RL) was recorded by measuring the file length from the coronal reference point to the tip of the file. Each root canal was then prepared to a no. 40 K-file diameter using a standardized technique; saline was used for irrigation. Upon completion of the root canal preparation, EL measurements were taken by each EAL in dry conditions and with different irrigation solutions. Each measurement was repeated three times. The RL was recorded according to the last EL measurement. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. In all parameters tested, a significant statistical difference was found between Bingo 1020 and the Root ZX. Measurements obtained using the Bingo 1020 were consistently closer to the AL (0.08 mm) than those obtained using the Root ZX. Both EALs measured the tooth length with great accuracy and a positive correlation of 0.76 (P = 0.00) existed between the two devices. No significant difference was found between the two apex locators when measurements were taken with the different irrigants (P = 0.34) and the content of the root canal did not affect the accuracy of the measurements. Lengths obtained by calculations from the radiographs were longer than the AL as well as the length obtained by both EALs (P = 0.00). The Bingo 1020 proved to be as reliable as Root ZX and was user friendly. Under the experimental conditions, electronic measurements were more reliable than radiographs in the process of root length determination.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lewewa@o2.pl
                rytalagocka@gmail.com
                katarzynakot84@o2.pl
                krzysiek@pum.edu.pl
                lipam@pum.edu.pl
                Journal
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6831
                31 December 2019
                31 December 2019
                2020
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1411 4349, GRID grid.107950.a, Department of Preclinical Conservative Dentistry and Preclinical Endodontics, , Pomeranian Medical University, ; Al. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1411 4349, GRID grid.107950.a, Department of Conservative Dentistry, , Pomeranian Medical University, ; Al. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1411 4349, GRID grid.107950.a, Department of Orthodontics, , Pomeranian Medical University, ; Al. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
                Article
                994
                10.1186/s12903-019-0994-z
                6938632
                31892327
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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