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      The path from mitochondrial ROS to aging runs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

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          Summary

          Excessive production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ( mROS) is strongly associated with mitochondrial and cellular oxidative damage, aging, and degenerative diseases. However, mROS also induces pathways of protection of mitochondria that slow aging, inhibit cell death, and increase lifespan. Recent studies show that the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore ( mPTP), which is triggered by mROS and mitochondrial calcium overloading, is enhanced in aged animals and humans and in aging‐related degenerative diseases. mPTP opening initiates further production and release of mROS that damage both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, proteins, and phospholipids, and also releases matrix NAD that is hydrolyzed in the intermembrane space, thus contributing to the depletion of cellular NAD that accelerates aging. Oxidative damage to calcium transporters leads to calcium overload and more frequent opening of mPTP. Because aging enhances the opening of the mPTP and mPTP opening accelerates aging, we suggest that mPTP opening drives the progression of aging. Activation of the mPTP is regulated, directly and indirectly, not only by the mitochondrial protection pathways that are induced by mROS, but also by pro‐apoptotic signals that are induced by DNA damage. We suggest that the integration of these contrasting signals by the mPTP largely determines the rate of cell aging and the initiation of cell death, and thus animal lifespan. The suggestion that the control of mPTP activation is critical for the progression of aging can explain the conflicting and confusing evidence regarding the beneficial and deleterious effects of mROS on health and lifespan.

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          The free radical theory of aging matures.

          The free radical theory of aging, conceived in 1956, has turned 40 and is rapidly attracting the interest of the mainstream of biological research. From its origins in radiation biology, through a decade or so of dormancy and two decades of steady phenomenological research, it has attracted an increasing number of scientists from an expanding circle of fields. During the past decade, several lines of evidence have convinced a number of scientists that oxidants play an important role in aging. (For the sake of simplicity, we use the term oxidant to refer to all "reactive oxygen species," including O2-., H2O2, and .OH, even though the former often acts as a reductant and produces oxidants indirectly.) The pace and scope of research in the last few years have been particularly impressive and diverse. The only disadvantage of the current intellectual ferment is the difficulty in digesting the literature. Therefore, we have systematically reviewed the status of the free radical theory, by categorizing the literature in terms of the various types of experiments that have been performed. These include phenomenological measurements of age-associated oxidative stress, interspecies comparisons, dietary restriction, the manipulation of metabolic activity and oxygen tension, treatment with dietary and pharmacological antioxidants, in vitro senescence, classical and population genetics, molecular genetics, transgenic organisms, the study of human diseases of aging, epidemiological studies, and the ongoing elucidation of the role of active oxygen in biology.
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            Diversity of ageing across the tree of life.

            Evolution drives, and is driven by, demography. A genotype moulds its phenotype's age patterns of mortality and fertility in an environment; these two patterns in turn determine the genotype's fitness in that environment. Hence, to understand the evolution of ageing, age patterns of mortality and reproduction need to be compared for species across the tree of life. However, few studies have done so and only for a limited range of taxa. Here we contrast standardized patterns over age for 11 mammals, 12 other vertebrates, 10 invertebrates, 12 vascular plants and a green alga. Although it has been predicted that evolution should inevitably lead to increasing mortality and declining fertility with age after maturity, there is great variation among these species, including increasing, constant, decreasing, humped and bowed trajectories for both long- and short-lived species. This diversity challenges theoreticians to develop broader perspectives on the evolution of ageing and empiricists to study the demography of more species.
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              Reactive oxygen species and mitochondria: A nexus of cellular homeostasis

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are integral components of multiple cellular pathways even though excessive or inappropriately localized ROS damage cells. ROS function as anti-microbial effector molecules and as signaling molecules that regulate such processes as NF-kB transcriptional activity, the production of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and autophagy. The main sources of cellular ROS are mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In contrast to NOX-generated ROS, ROS produced in the mitochondria (mtROS) were initially considered to be unwanted by-products of oxidative metabolism. Increasing evidence indicates that mtROS have been incorporated into signaling pathways including those regulating immune responses and autophagy. As metabolic hubs, mitochondria facilitate crosstalk between the metabolic state of the cell with these pathways. Mitochondria and ROS are thus a nexus of multiple pathways that determine the response of cells to disruptions in cellular homeostasis such as infection, sterile damage, and metabolic imbalance. In this review, we discuss the roles of mitochondria in the generation of ROS-derived anti-microbial effectors, the interplay of mitochondria and ROS with autophagy and the formation of DNA extracellular traps, and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by ROS and mitochondria.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                rotteh@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Aging Cell
                Aging Cell
                10.1111/(ISSN)1474-9726
                ACEL
                Aging Cell
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1474-9718
                1474-9726
                31 July 2017
                October 2017
                : 16
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1111/acel.2017.16.issue-5 )
                : 943-955
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] New Hope Biomedical R&D 23 W. Bridge Street New Hope PA 18038 USA
                [ 2 ] Department of Anatomy, Pathology and Cell Biology MitoCare Center Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia PA 19107 USA
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Hagai Rottenberg

                e‐mail: rotteh@ 123456hotmail.com

                Article
                ACEL12650
                10.1111/acel.12650
                5595682
                28758328
                cee26306-223f-4cf6-af14-e1ee958ad3be
                © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 13, Words: 15448
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: NIH
                Award ID: AA018873
                Categories
                Review
                Reviews
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                acel12650
                October 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.9 mode:remove_FC converted:12.09.2017

                Cell biology
                aging,calcium,mitochondria,nad,permeability transition,reactive oxygen species
                Cell biology
                aging, calcium, mitochondria, nad, permeability transition, reactive oxygen species

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