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      Edwardsiella tarda-Induced Inhibition of Apoptosis: A Strategy for Intracellular Survival


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          Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of freshwater and marine fish. One salient feature of E. tarda is the ability to survive and replicate in various host cells. In this study, we observed that E. tarda replicated robustly in the zebrafish cell line ZF4, and that E. tarda-infected cells exhibited no detectable signs of apoptosis. Global transcriptome analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that E. tarda infection generally significantly downregulated pro-apoptotic genes and upregulated anti-apoptotic genes. To investigate the role of apoptosis in E. tarda infection, two upregulated anti-apoptotic genes ( Fech and Prx3) and two downregulated pro-apoptotic genes ( Brms1a and Ivns1a) were overexpressed in zebrafish. Subsequent infection study showed that Fech and Prx3 overexpression significantly promoted E. tarda dissemination in and colonization of fish tissues, while Brms1a and Ivns1a overexpression significantly reduced E. tarda dissemination and colonization. Consistently, when Fech and Prx3 were knocked down in zebrafish, E. tarda infection was significantly inhibited, whereas Brms1a and Ivns1a knockdown significantly enhanced E. tarda infection. These results indicate for the first time that E. tarda prevents apoptosis in teleost as a strategy for intracellular survival, and that some putative apoptotic genes of teleost function in the apoptosis pathway probably in a manner similar to that in mammalian systems.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Regulated cell death and inflammation: an auto-amplification loop causes organ failure.

          Regulated cell death (RCD) is either immunologically silent or immunogenic. RCD in parenchymal cells may lead to the release of damage- associated molecular patterns that drive both tissue inflammation and the activation of further pathways of RCD. Following an initial event of regulated necrosis, RCD and inflammation can induce each other and drive a local auto-amplification loop that leads to exaggerated cell death and inflammation. In this Opinion article, we propose that such crosstalk between pro-inflammatory and RCD pathways has pathophysiological relevance in solid organ failure, transplantation and cancer. In our opinion, clinicians should not only prescribe immunosuppressive treatments to disrupt this circuit, but also implement the neglected therapeutic option of adding compounds that interfere with RCD.
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            Cisplatin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and nucleus-independent apoptotic signaling.

            DNA damage is believed to be the main cause of the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin, a cornerstone agent in anticancer therapy. However, cisplatin can be expected to react also with nucleophiles other than DNA. Using enucleated cells (cytoplasts) we demonstrate here that cisplatin-induced apoptotic signaling may occur independently of DNA damage. Cisplatin-induced caspase-3 activation in cytoplasts required calcium and the activity of the calcium-dependent protease calpain. It is known that calpain activation may be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suggesting that the ER is a cytosolic target of cisplatin. Consistent with this hypothesis, cisplatin induced calpain-dependent activation of the ER-specific caspase-12 in cytoplasts as well as in intact cells. Cisplatin also induced increased expression of Grp78/BiP, another marker of ER stress. By contrast, the DNA-damaging topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide did not induce apoptotic signaling in cytoplasts nor ER stress in intact cells. We have thus identified a novel mechanism of action of cisplatin. The results have implications for the understanding of resistance mechanisms as well as the unique efficiency of this drug.
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              Immunology and zebrafish: spawning new models of human disease.

              The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful new vertebrate model of human disease. Initially prominent in developmental biology, the zebrafish has now been adopted into varied fields of study including immunology. In this review, we describe the characteristics of the zebrafish, which make it a versatile model, including a description of its immune system with its remarkable similarities to its mammalian counterparts. We review the zebrafish disease models of innate and adaptive immunity. Models of immune system malignancies are discussed that are either based on oncogene over-expression or on our own forward-genetic screen that was designed to identify new models of immune dysregulation.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 July 2016
                : 6
                [1] 1Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Qingdao, China
                [2] 2Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology Qingdao, China
                [3] 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jason A. Carlyon, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, USA

                Reviewed by: Stacey Gilk, Indiana University School of Medicine, USA; Iddya Karunasagar, Nitte University, India

                *Correspondence: Li Sun lsun@ 123456qdio.ac.cn
                Copyright © 2016 Zhou and Sun.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 10, Words: 7523
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 31330081
                Original Research


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