It is well known that during low diuresis or low effective circulating volume, salt excretion is low. The aim of this study was to find out whether salt excretion, expressed as either urinary sodium concentration (UNa) or fractional sodium excretion (FENa), and the combined use of FENa and fractional urea excretion (FEurea) still differentiate between hyponatremic SIADH and hyponatremic salt depletion (SD) patients when diuresis is low. The relationships between UNa, FENa and diuresis, indirectly estimated by the urinary to plasma creatinine ratio (U/P creat), were studied in 42 hyponatremic SIADH patients, 21 hyponatremic SD patients and 66 normonatremic controls (CO) of similar age and sex ratio. There was no significant relationship between UNa and U/P creat either in SIADH or in SD or CO patients. FENa and U/P creat were inversely correlated, both in CO (r = –0.72; p < 0.001) and in SIADH (r = –0.68; p < 0.001). SIADH and SD patients can be fairly well differentiated from one another using FENa and U/P creat. Even with high U/P creat values, SIADH patients, despite a sharp decrease in their FENa values, presented still higher FENa values than SD patients did (mean FENa = 0.3 ± 0.2% in SIADH and 0.1 ± 0.04% in SD; p < 0.05). However, FENa values of SIADH patients with low diuresis (mean FENa = 0.3 ± 0.2% for a mean U/P creat = 191 ± 40) are indistinguishable from those of SD patients with normal urine volumes (mean FENa = 0.2 ± 0.2% for a mean U/P creat = 92 ± 30). The combined use of FENa and FEurea remains a reliable way to discriminate SD patients and SIADH patients, as far as the differential limit value for FENa is narrowed to a value of 0.15%, for hyponatremic patients with U/P creat >140. Conclusion: In SIADH, FENa values are lower than 0.5%, as soon as U/P creat exceeds a value of 180. In SD patients with U/P creat values exceeding 140, FENa is lower than 0.15% and FEurea lower than 45%.