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      Design Study Methodology: Reflections from the Trenches and the Stacks

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          Most cited references54

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          A nested model for visualization design and validation.

          We present a nested model for the visualization design process with four layers: characterize the problem domain, abstract into operations on data types, design visual encoding and interaction techniques, and create algorithms to execute techniques efficiently. The output from a level above is input to the level below, bringing attention to the design challenge that an upstream error inevitably cascades to all downstream levels. This model provides prescriptive guidance for determining appropriate evaluation approaches by identifying threats to validity unique to each level. We call attention to specific steps in the design and evaluation process that are often given short shrift. We also provide three recommendations motivated by this model:authors should distinguish between these levels when claiming contributions at more than one of them, authors should explicitly state upstream assumptions at levels above the focus of a paper, and visualization venues should accept more papers on domain characterization.
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            Empirical Studies in Information Visualization: Seven Scenarios

            We take a new, scenario-based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data analysis and reasoning, evaluating user performance, evaluating user experience, evaluating environments and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms, and evaluating collaborative data analysis were derived through an extensive literature review of over 800 visualization publications. These scenarios distinguish different study goals and types of research questions and are illustrated through example studies. Through this broad survey and the distillation of these scenarios, we make two contributions. One, we encapsulate the current practices in the information visualization research community and, two, we provide a different approach to reaching decisions about what might be the most effective evaluation of a given information visualization. Scenarios can be used to choose appropriate research questions and goals and the provided examples can be consulted for guidance on how to design one's own study.
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              Iterative and incremental developments. a brief history

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
                IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graphics
                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                1077-2626
                December 2012
                December 2012
                : 18
                : 12
                : 2431-2440
                Article
                10.1109/TVCG.2012.213
                cf08fdea-e12b-4f03-a8e1-5caabc434672
                © 2012
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6327248/

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