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      Barriers to treatment adherence in physiotherapy outpatient clinics: A systematic review

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          Abstract

          Poor adherence to treatment can have negative effects on outcomes and healthcare cost. However, little is known about the barriers to treatment adherence within physiotherapy. The aim of this systematic review was to identify barriers to treatment adherence in patients typically managed in musculoskeletal physiotherapy outpatient settings and suggest strategies for reducing their impact. The review included twenty high quality studies investigating barriers to treatment adherence in musculoskeletal populations. There was strong evidence that poor treatment adherence was associated with low levels of physical activity at baseline or in previous weeks, low in-treatment adherence with exercise, low self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, helplessness, poor social support/activity, greater perceived number of barriers to exercise and increased pain levels during exercise. Strategies to overcome these barriers and improve adherence are considered. We found limited evidence for many factors and further high quality research is required to investigate the predictive validity of these potential barriers. Much of the available research has focussed on patient factors and additional research is required to investigate the barriers introduced by health professionals or health organisations, since these factors are also likely to influence patient adherence with treatment.

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          Patient adherence to treatment: three decades of research. A comprehensive review.

          Low compliance to prescribed medical interventions is an ever present and complex problem, especially for patients with a chronic illness. With increasing numbers of medications shown to do more good than harm when taken as prescibed, low compliance is a major problem in health care. Relevant studies were retrieved through comprehensive searches of different database systems to enable a thorough assessment of the major issues in compliance to prescribed medical interventions. The term compliance is the main term used in this review because the majority of papers reviewed used this term. Three decades have passed since the first workshop on compliance research. It is timely to pause and to reflect on the accumulated knowledge. The enormous amount of quantitative research undertaken is of variable methodological quality, with no gold standard for the measurement of compliance and it is often not clear which type of non-compliance is being studied. Many authors do not even feel the need to define adherence. Often absent in the research on compliance is the patient, although the concordance model points at the importance of the patient's agreement and harmony in the doctor-patient relationship. The backbone of the concordance model is the patient as a decision maker and a cornerstone is professional empathy. Recently, some qualitative research has identified important issues such as the quality of the doctor-patient relationship and patient health beliefs in this context. Because non-compliance remains a major health problem, more high quality studies are needed to assess these aspects and systematic reviews/meta-analyses are required to study the effects of compliance in enhancing the effects of interventions.
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            Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain.

            Exercise therapy encompasses a heterogeneous group of interventions. There continues to be uncertainty about the most effective exercise approach in chronic low back pain. To identify particular exercise intervention characteristics that decrease pain and improve function in adults with nonspecific chronic low back pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases to October 2004 and citation searches and bibliographic reviews of previous systematic reviews. Randomized, controlled trials evaluating exercise therapy in populations with chronic (>12 weeks duration) low back pain. Two reviewers independently extracted data on exercise intervention characteristics: program design (individually designed or standard program), delivery type (independent home exercises, group, or individual supervision), dose or intensity (hours of intervention time), and inclusion of additional conservative interventions. 43 trials of 72 exercise treatment and 31 comparison groups were included. Bayesian multivariable random-effects meta-regression found improved pain scores for individually designed programs (5.4 points [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.3 to 9.5 points]), supervised home exercise (6.1 points [CrI, -0.2 to 12.4 points]), group (4.8 points [CrI, 0.2 to 9.4 points]), and individually supervised programs (5.9 points [CrI, 2.1 to 9.8 points]) compared with home exercises only. High-dose exercise programs fared better than low-dose exercise programs (1.8 points [CrI, -2.1 to 5.5 points]). Interventions that included additional conservative care were better (5.1 points [CrI, 1.8 to 8.4 points]). A model including these most effective intervention characteristics would be expected to demonstrate important improvement in pain (18.1 points [CrI, 11.1 to 25.0 points] compared with no treatment and 13.0 points [CrI, 6.0 to 19.9 points] compared with other conservative treatment) and small improvement in function (5.5 points [CrI, 0.5 to 10.5 points] compared with no treatment and 2.7 points [CrI, -1.7 to 7.1 points] compared with other conservative treatment). Stretching and strengthening demonstrated the largest improvement over comparisons. Limitations of the literature, including low-quality studies with heterogeneous outcome measures and inconsistent and poor reporting; publication bias. Exercise therapy that consists of individually designed programs, including stretching or strengthening, and is delivered with supervision may improve pain and function in chronic nonspecific low back pain. Strategies should be used to encourage adherence. Future studies should test this multivariable model and further assess specific patient-level characteristics and exercise types.
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              Patient compliance with paper and electronic diaries.

              Paper diaries are commonly used in health care and clinical research to assess patient experiences. There is concern that patients do not comply with diary protocols, possibly invalidating the benefit of diary data. Compliance with paper diaries was examined with a paper diary and with an electronic diary that incorporated compliance-enhancing features. Participants were chronic pain patients and they were assigned to use either a paper diary instrumented to track diary use or an electronic diary that time-stamped entries. Participants were instructed to make three pain entries per day at predetermined times for 21 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were reported vs actual compliance with paper diaries and actual compliance with paper diaries (defined by comparing the written times and the electronically-recorded times of diary use). Actual compliance was recorded by the electronic diary. Participants submitted diary cards corresponding to 90% of assigned times (+/-15 min). However, electronic records indicated that actual compliance was only 11%, indicating a high level of faked compliance. On 32% of all study days the paper diary binder was not opened, yet reported compliance for these days exceeded 90%. For the electronic diary, the actual compliance rate was 94%. In summary, participants with chronic pain enrolled in a study for research were not compliant with paper diaries but were compliant with an electronic diary with enhanced compliance features. The findings call into question the use of paper diaries and suggest that electronic diaries with compliance-enhancing features are a more effective way of collecting diary information.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Man Ther
                Man Ther
                Manual Therapy
                Churchill Livingstone
                1356-689X
                1532-2769
                June 2010
                June 2010
                : 15
                : 3-2
                : 220-228
                Affiliations
                [a ]Hull & East Yorkshire Hospital, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ, United Kingdom
                [b ]School of Health and Well Being, Sheffield Hallam University, Broomhall Road, Sheffield, S10 2BP, United Kingdom
                [c ]Institute of Rehabilitation, 215 Anlaby Road, Hull, East Yorkshire, HU3 2PG, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author at: Room 201, 38 Collegiate Crescent, School of Health and Well Being, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Campus, Broomhall Road, Sheffield S10 2BP, United Kingdom. Tel.: +44 114 225 2271. S.McLean@ 123456shu.ac.uk
                Article
                YMATH1057
                10.1016/j.math.2009.12.004
                2923776
                20163979
                cf1115fb-09a0-4ae9-81ab-adab0d25ba3e
                © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions.

                Categories
                Systematic Review

                Medicine
                adherence,barriers,musculoskeletal,treatment
                Medicine
                adherence, barriers, musculoskeletal, treatment

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