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      Veillonella montpellierensis Endocarditis


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          Veillonella spp. rarely cause infections in humans. We report a case of Veillonella endocarditis documented by isolating a slow-growing, gram-negative microbe in blood cultures. This microbe was identified as the newly recognized species Veillonella montpellierensis (100% homology) by 16S RNA gene sequence analysis.

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          16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of a large collection of environmental and clinical unidentifiable bacterial isolates.

          Some bacteria are difficult to identify with phenotypic identification schemes commonly used outside reference laboratories. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based identification of bacteria potentially offers a useful alternative when phenotypic characterization methods fail. However, as yet, the usefulness of 16S rDNA sequence analysis in the identification of conventionally unidentifiable isolates has not been evaluated with a large collection of isolates. In this study, we evaluated the utility of 16S rDNA sequencing as a means to identify a collection of 177 such isolates obtained from environmental, veterinary, and clinical sources. For 159 isolates (89.8%) there was at least one sequence in GenBank that yielded a similarity score of > or =97%, and for 139 isolates (78.5%) there was at least one sequence in GenBank that yielded a similarity score of > or =99%. These similarity score values were used to defined identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. For isolates identified to the species level, conventional identification failed to produce accurate results because of inappropriate biochemical profile determination in 76 isolates (58.7%), Gram staining in 16 isolates (11.6%), oxidase and catalase activity determination in 5 isolates (3.6%) and growth requirement determination in 2 isolates (1.5%). Eighteen isolates (10.2%) remained unidentifiable by 16S rDNA sequence analysis but were probably prototype isolates of new species. These isolates originated mainly from environmental sources (P = 0.07). The 16S rDNA approach failed to identify Enterobacter and Pantoea isolates to the species level (P = 0.04; odds ratio = 0.32 [95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 1.14]). Elsewhere, the usefulness of 16S rDNA sequencing was compromised by the presence of 16S rDNA sequences with >1% undetermined positions in the databases. Unlike phenotypic identification, which can be modified by the variability of expression of characters, 16S rDNA sequencing provides unambiguous data even for rare isolates, which are reproducible in and between laboratories. The increase in accurate new 16S rDNA sequences and the development of alternative genes for molecular identification of certain taxa should further improve the usefulness of molecular identification of bacteria.
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            Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans.

            Clinical microorganisms isolated during a 5-year study in our hospital that could not be identified by conventional criteria were studied by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Each isolate yielded a > or =1,400-bp sequence containing <5 ambiguities which was compared with the GenBank 16S rRNA gene library; 1,404 such isolates were tested, and 120 were considered unique (27 isolates) or rare (< or =10 cases reported in the literature) human pathogens. Eleven new species, "Actinobaculum massiliae," "Candidatus Actinobaculum timonae," Paenibacillus sanguinis, "Candidatus Bacteroides massiliae," Chryseobacterium massiliae, "Candidatus Chryseobacterium timonae," Paenibacillus massiliensis, "Candidatus Peptostreptococcus massiliae," "Candidatus Prevotella massiliensis," Rhodobacter massiliensis, and "Candidatus Veillonella atypica" were identified. Sixteen species were obtained from humans for the first time. Our results show the important role that 16S rRNA gene sequence-based bacterial identification currently plays in recognizing unusual and emerging bacterial diseases.
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              Veillonella montpellierensis sp. nov., a novel, anaerobic, Gram-negative coccus isolated from human clinical samples.

              Three strains of a hitherto unknown, Gram-negative, anaerobic coccus were isolated from human samples. At the phenotypic level, the isolates displayed all the characteristics of bacteria belonging to the genus Veillonella. Sequence analysis revealed that the three strains shared >99.5% similarity in 16S rDNA sequence and >98.4% similarity in dnaK sequence. The three unknown strains formed a separate subclade that was clearly remote from Veillonella species of human and animal origin. Based on these results, the three strains were considered to represent a novel species within the genus Veillonella, for which the name Veillonella montpellierensis is proposed. The type strain of the species is ADV 281.99T (=CIP 107992T=CCUG 48299T).

                Author and article information

                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                July 2005
                : 11
                : 7
                : 1112-1114
                [* ]Hôpital Nord, Marseille, France
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Philippe Brouqui, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital Nord, Chemin des Bourrelys, 13915 Marseille Cedex 20, France; fax: 33-0-4-91-96-89-38; email: philippe.brouqui@ 123456medecine.univ-mrs.fr

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