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      Global Action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination

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      Journal of the International AIDS Society

      International AIDS Society

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective interventions at the individual, community and societal levels in order to strategically incorporate stigma and discrimination reduction into national AIDS plans. Currently, the heterogeneity of stigma and discrimination reduction approaches and measurement makes it challenging to compare and contrast evaluated interventions. Moving forward, it is critical for the research community to: (1) clearly link intervention activities to the domains of stigma to be shifted; (2) assess the stigma domains in a consistent manner; and (3) link stigma and discrimination reduction with HIV prevention, care and treatment outcomes (e.g., uptake, adherence and retention of ART). These steps would further advance the scientific evidence base of stigma and discrimination reduction and allow for the identification of effective interventions that could be scaled up by national governments.

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          Most cited references 756

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              Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (in depth interviews and focus groups). We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess were removed. Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings, method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings, analysis and interpretations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Int AIDS Soc
                J Int AIDS Soc
                JIAS
                Journal of the International AIDS Society
                International AIDS Society
                1758-2652
                13 November 2013
                2013
                : 16
                : 3Suppl 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
                [2 ]The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief US Department of State
                [1 ]Division of AIDS Research, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
                [2 ]Department of Global Health, International Center for Research on Women, Washington, DC, USA
                [3 ]Secretariat, Stigma Action Network, Washington, DC, USA
                [1 ]Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
                [2 ]Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
                [3 ]Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
                [4 ]Harvard College, Cambridge, MA, United States
                [5 ]Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States
                [6 ]Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
                [7 ]Division of HIV/AIDS, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California at San Francisco, California, United States
                [8 ]Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
                [1 ]Department of Global Health, International Center for Research on Women, Washington, DC, USA
                [2 ]Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
                [1 ]International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Hove, UK
                [2 ]Division of Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
                [3 ]Institute of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK
                [4 ]Community Health Alliance Uganda, Kampala, Uganda
                [5 ]Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
                [6 ]Division of Medical Education, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK
                [7 ]School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
                [8 ]MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda
                [1 ]International Center for Research on Women,Washington, DC, USA
                [2 ]Population & Community Development Association (PDA), Bangkok, Thailand
                [3 ]Pact Thailand/Greater Mekong Region, Bangkok, Thailand
                [4 ]Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand
                [1 ]Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Center for Community Health, University of California at Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Fujian Provincial Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Fuzhou, China
                [3 ]National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
                [1 ]Center for Social Research, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico
                [2 ]Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS), University of California, San Francisco, CA
                [3 ]Clinical Psychology Program, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ponce, Puerto Rico
                [4 ]Social Sciences Department, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico
                [1 ]Health Policy Project and RTI International, Washington, DC, USA
                [2 ]Health Policy Project, Futures Group,Washington, DC, USA
                [3 ]Global Disease Detection and Response Programme at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, Semel Institute – Center for Community Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [5 ]Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Semel Institute – Center for Community Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [6 ]Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Economics, University of the West Indies, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
                [7 ]Department of Health Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
                [8 ]Center for Social Research, Social Sciences Faculty, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, USA
                [9 ]Fujian Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Fuzhou, China
                [10 ]Centre for Microbiology Research (CMR), Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kisumu, Kenya
                [11 ]Caribbean Data Management Systems, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
                [1 ]Program on Global Health and Human Rights, Institute for Global Health, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
                [2 ]Open Society Foundations, Public Health Program, Law and Health Initiative, New York, NY
                [3 ]Open Society Foundations, Initiative for East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
                [4 ]Open Society Foundations, Public Health Program, New York, NY
                [5 ]International Environmental Law Research Centre, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya
                [1 ]Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
                [2 ]St. John's Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                [3 ]School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
                [4 ]Department of Health Education, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                [5 ]Centre for Health and Social Sciences, School of Health Systems Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, Maharastra, India
                [1 ]Department of Psychology, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA
                [2 ]Department of Psychology, Stetson University, DeLand, FL, USA
                [3 ]Department of Biomedical and Health Informatics, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
                [1 ]Department of Communication and Center for Health, Intervention, & Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
                [2 ]Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
                [3 ]Department of Paediatrics (CHLA), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
                [4 ]S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communication, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY
                [5 ]Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California, Playa Vista, CA
                [6 ]Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
                [2 ]Rock of Hope, Mbabane, Swaziland
                [3 ]Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
                [4 ]Swaziland National AIDS Program, Mbabane, Swaziland
                [1 ]Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA
                [2 ]Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA
                [3 ]Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA
                [5 ]Thai Nguyen Center for Preventive Medicine, Thai Nguyen, Vietnam
                Author notes
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Cynthia I Grossman, HIV Care Engagement and Secondary Prevention Program, Division of AIDS Research, National Institutes of Mental Health, 6001 Executive Boulevard, RM 6201, MSC 9619, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ( grossmanc@ 123456mail.nih.gov )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Alexander C Tsai, Center for Global Health, Room 1529-E3, Massachusetts General Hospital, 100 Cambridge Street, 15th floor, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Tel: +1-617-724-1120. Fax: +1-617-724-1637. ( actsai@ 123456partners.org )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Anne L Stangl, 1120, 20th St. NW Suite 500N, Washington, DC 20036, USA. Tel: +1-202-797-0007. ( alstangl@ 123456gmail.com )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Gitau Mburu, International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Preece House, 91–101 Davigdor Road, Hove BN3 1RE, UK. Tel: +44-1273-718900. Fax: +44-1273-718901. ( gmburu@ 123456aidsalliance.org )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Aparna Jain, International Center for Research on Women, Washington, DC, USA. Tel: +1-917-657-6299. ( aparna727@ 123456gmail.com )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Li Li, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Behavior, Center for Community Health, 10920 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 350, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. Tel: +1-310-794-2446. Fax: +1-310-794-8297. ( lililili@ 123456ucla.edu )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Nelson Varas-Díaz, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23345, San Juan, Puerto Rico. ( nvaras@ 123456mac.com )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Laura Nyblade, Health Policy Project and RTI International, 701 13th St., NW, Suite 750,Washington, DC 20005, USA. Tel: +1-202-728-1961. ( lnyblade@ 123456rti.org )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Sofia Gruskin, Program on Global Health and Human Rights, Institute for Global Health, University of Southern California, 2001 N. Soto Street, SSB 318J, MC 9239, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA. ( gruskin@ 123456usc.edu )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Maria L Ekstrand, 50 Beale Street, 13th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA. Tel: +1-415-597-9160. ( Maria.Ekstrand@ 123456ucsf.edu )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Jannette Y Berkley-Patton, Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5030 Cherry Street, Rm. 308, Kansas City, MO 64110-2297, USA. Tel: +1-816-235-6362. Fax: +1-816-235-1062. ( berkleypattonj@ 123456umkc.edu )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: John L Christensen, Department of Communication and Center for Health, Intervention, & Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Tel: +1-860-486-5257. ( john.christensen@ 123456uconn.edu )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Stefan D Baral, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., E 7152, Baltimore, MD 20205, USA. Tel: +1-410-502-0800. Fax: +1-410-614-8371. ( sbaral@ 123456jhsph.edu )
                [§ ] Corresponding author: Travis Lim, 1600 Clifton Rd NE., MS E-30, Atlanta, GA, 30333 USA. Tel: +1-443-739-8961. ( tlim@ 123456jhsph.edu )
                Article
                18934
                10.7448/IAS.16.3.18934
                3834870
                © 2013 licensee International AIDS Society

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Global action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination
                Supplement 2

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