To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a newly introduced endoscopic technique in the treatment of nonmuscle-invasive bladder tumors (NMIBT), the bipolar plasma vaporization of bladder tumors (BPV-BT), and to compare it with monopolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A total of 120 patients with at least one bladder tumor larger than 3 cm were enrolled in the study and randomized for BPV-BT and TURBT. Resection biopsy followed by tumor plasma vaporization and biopsies of the tumoral bed were performed in the 60 cases of the BPV-BT arm. All NMIBT patients underwent monopolar Re-TURBT 4 weeks after the initial procedure. The mean operative time and postoperative hemoglobin decrease were significantly improved for BPV-BT compared with TURBT (21.4 minutes vs 32.7 minutes and 0.3 g/dL vs 0.9 g/dL). The perioperative complications were more frequent in the TURBT arm. The mean catheterization period and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the BPV-BT series (2.5 vs 3.5 days and 3.5 vs 4.5 days). During follow-up, the overall residual tumors' rate at Re-TURBT was 9.3% in the BPVBT group vs 20.8% in the TURBT group. Primary site recurrences occurred in 7.4% vs 17% of the cases, whereas in patients with initial multiple tumors, the recurrence rate was 9.7% vs 25%. BPV-BT seems to represent a promising endoscopic treatment alternative for NMIBT patients, with good efficacy, reduced morbidity, fast postoperative recovery, and significantly decreased residual tumors' rate by compared with TURBT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.