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      A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex

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          Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal ‘fingerprint’ of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Automatically Parcellating the Human Cerebral Cortex

           B Fischl (2004)
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            Groupwise whole-brain parcellation from resting-state fMRI data for network node identification.

            In this paper, we present a groupwise graph-theory-based parcellation approach to define nodes for network analysis. The application of network-theory-based analysis to extend the utility of functional MRI has recently received increased attention. Such analyses require first and foremost a reasonable definition of a set of nodes as input to the network analysis. To date many applications have used existing atlases based on cytoarchitecture, task-based fMRI activations, or anatomic delineations. A potential pitfall in using such atlases is that the mean timecourse of a node may not represent any of the constituent timecourses if different functional areas are included within a single node. The proposed approach involves a groupwise optimization that ensures functional homogeneity within each subunit and that these definitions are consistent at the group level. Parcellation reproducibility of each subunit is computed across multiple groups of healthy volunteers and is demonstrated to be high. Issues related to the selection of appropriate number of nodes in the brain are considered. Within typical parameters of fMRI resolution, parcellation results are shown for a total of 100, 200, and 300 subunits. Such parcellations may ultimately serve as a functional atlas for fMRI and as such three atlases at the 100-, 200- and 300-parcellation levels derived from 79 healthy normal volunteers are made freely available online along with tools to interface this atlas with SPM, BioImage Suite and other analysis packages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases.

              We report on surface-based analyses that enhance our understanding of human cortical organization, including its convolutions and its parcellation into many distinct areas. The surface area of human neocortex averages 973 cm(2) per hemisphere, based on cortical midthickness surfaces of 2 cohorts of subjects. We implemented a method to register individual subjects to a hybrid version of the FreeSurfer "fsaverage" atlas whose left and right hemispheres are in precise geographic correspondence. Cortical folding patterns in the resultant population-average "fs_LR" midthickness surfaces are remarkably similar in the left and right hemispheres, even in regions showing significant asymmetry in 3D position. Both hemispheres are equal in average surface area, but hotspots of surface area asymmetry are present in the Sylvian Fissure and elsewhere, together with a broad pattern of asymmetries that are significant though small in magnitude. Multiple cortical parcellation schemes registered to the human atlas provide valuable reference data sets for comparisons with other studies. Identified cortical areas vary in size by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The total number of human neocortical areas is estimated to be ∼150 to 200 areas per hemisphere, which is modestly larger than a recent estimate for the macaque.

                Author and article information

                12 July 2016
                11 August 2016
                11 February 2017
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                [1 ]Department of Neuroscience, Washington University Medical School, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
                [2 ]FMRIB centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
                [3 ]Department of Computing, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
                [4 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
                [5 ]Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
                [6 ]Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6525 EN, The Netherlands
                [7 ]Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Postbus 9101, Nijmegen 6500 HB, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.F.G. ( glasserm@ 123456wustl.edu ) or D.C.V.E. ( vanessen@ 123456wustl.edu ).

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