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      Differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies by proteotyping

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          Abstract

          Campylobacter fetus is a causative agent of intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections and meningitis. C. fetus currently comprises three subspecies: C. fetus subspecies fetus ( Cff), C. fetus subspecies venerealis ( Cfv), and C. fetus subspecies testudinum ( Cft). Cff and Cfv are primarily associated with mammals whereas Cft is associated with reptiles.

          To offer an alternative to laborious sequence-based techniques such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ribotyping for this species, the purpose of the study was to develop a typing scheme based on proteotyping.

          In total, 41 representative C. fetus strains were analyzed by intact cell mass spectrometry and compared to MLST results. Biomarkers detected in the mass spectrum of C. fetus subsp. fetus reference strain LMG 6442 (NCTC 10842) as well as corresponding isoforms were associated with the respective amino acid sequences and added to the C. fetus proteotyping scheme.

          In combination, the 9 identified biomarkers allow the differentiation of Cft subspecies strains from Cff and Cfv subspecies strains. Biomarkers to distinguish between Cff and Cfv were not found. The results of the study show the potential of proteotyping to differentiate different subspecies, but also the limitations of the method.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species.

          A growing number of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni and C. coli have been recognized as emerging human and animal pathogens. Although C. jejuni continues to be the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, advances in molecular biology and development of innovative culture methodologies have led to the detection and isolation of a range of under-recognized and nutritionally fastidious Campylobacter spp., including C. concisus, C. upsaliensis and C. ureolyticus. These emerging Campylobacter spp. have been associated with a range of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly gastroenteritis, IBD and periodontitis. In some instances, infection of the gastrointestinal tract by these bacteria can progress to life-threatening extragastrointestinal diseases. Studies have shown that several emerging Campylobacter spp. have the ability to attach to and invade human intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, damage intestinal barrier integrity, secrete toxins and strategically evade host immune responses. Members of the Campylobacter genus naturally colonize a wide range of hosts (including pets, farm animals and wild animals) and are frequently found in contaminated food products, which indicates that these bacteria are at risk of zoonotic transmission to humans. This Review presents the latest information on the role and clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter spp. in gastrointestinal health and disease.
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            MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry applications in clinical microbiology.

            MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry (MS) has been successfully adapted for the routine identification of microorganisms in clinical microbiology laboratories in the past 10 years. This revolutionary technique allows for easier and faster diagnosis of human pathogens than conventional phenotypic and molecular identification methods, with unquestionable reliability and cost-effectiveness. This article will review the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in routine clinical diagnosis, including the identification of bacteria at the species, subspecies, strain and lineage levels, and the identification of bacterial toxins and antibiotic-resistance type. We will also discuss the application of MALDI-TOF-MS tools in the identification of Archaea, eukaryotes and viruses. Pathogenic identification from colony-cultured, blood-cultured, urine and environmental samples is also reviewed.
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              Campylobacter bacteremia: clinical features and factors associated with fatal outcome.

              Campylobacter bacteremia is uncommon. The influence of underlying conditions and of the impact of antibiotics on infection outcome are not known. From January 2000 through December 2004, 183 episodes of Campylobacter bacteremia were identified in 23 hospitals in the Paris, France, area. The medical records were reviewed. Characteristics of bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus and to other Campylobacter species were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for fatal outcome within 30 days. Most affected patients were elderly or immunocompromised. C. fetus was the most commonly identified species (in 53% of patients). The main underlying conditions were liver disease (39%) and cancer (38%). The main clinical manifestations were diarrhea (33%) and skin infection (16%). Twenty-seven patients (15%) died within 30 days. Compared with patients with bacteremia due to other Campylobacter species, patients with C. fetus bacteremia were older (mean age, 69.5 years vs. 55.6 years; P = .001) and were more likely to have cellulitis (19% vs. 7%; P = .03), endovascular infection (13% vs. 1%; P = .007), or infection associated with a medical device (7% vs. 0%; P = .02). Independent risk factors for death were cancer (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-20.8) and asymptomatic infection (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.5-29.4) for C. fetus bacteremia, the absence of prescription of appropriate antibiotics (OR, 12.2; 95% CI, 0.9-157.5), and prescription of third-generation cephalosporins (OR, 10.2; 95% CI, 1.9-53.7) for bacteremia caused by other species. Campylobacter bacteremia occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Clinical features and risk factors of death differ by infection species.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                2062-8633
                June 2019
                : 9
                : 2
                : 62-71
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen , Göttingen, Germany
                [2 ] Institut für bakterielle Infektionen und Zoonosen, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut Bundesforschungsinstitut für Tiergesundheit , Jena, Germany
                [3 ] Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University , The Netherlands
                [4 ] WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter/OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis , Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [*]

                Author for correspondence: Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany; Phone: +49-551-398549; Fax: +49-551-395861; azautne@ 123456gwdg.de .

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2019.00006
                6563684
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any - are indicated.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research Paper

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