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Graphene in perovskite solar cells: device design, characterization and implementation

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      Abstract

      We review the use of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials in perovskite solar cells, outlining design perspectives, device characterization, and performance.

      Abstract

      Conversion of light energy directly into electricity by solar cell devices represents one of the most promising options for highly scalable renewable power. Tremendous effort has been directed at improving photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies, resulting in dramatic device performance increases over the past two decades for novel, cost-effective PV systems. Nevertheless, performance issues related to device stability, scalability, and flexibility prevent these novel designs from achieving their market potential. For mechanically flexible architectures, integration of new materials such as graphene-derived nanomaterials ( i.e. graphene/graphite oxide and their modified analogs with other nanocarbons and carbon nanotubes) may be necessary to enhance alternatives to silicon-based PV systems. Among the diverse solar technologies, perovskite solar cells—most notably organometal halides—have stood out from the crowd with solar efficiencies over 20% and potential for highly scalable manufacturing. Here, we review the use of graphene and graphene-derived nanomaterials in new designs of perovskite solar cells associated with organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites utilized as light-harvesting layers, outlining design perspectives, device characterization, and performance. Recent efforts to clarify stability issues and efficiency control mechanisms are also briefly discussed, and we provide some perspective on the currently available literature and future research directions in the field.

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      Is Open Access

      The rise of graphene

      Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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        Preparation of Graphitic Oxide

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          Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells.

          Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3) and CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3), were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO(2) films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3)-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Center for Nanoscale Materials
            [2 ]Argonne National Laboratory
            [3 ]USA
            [4 ]Institute for Molecular Engineering
            [5 ]University of Chicago
            Journal
            JMCAET
            Journal of Materials Chemistry A
            J. Mater. Chem. A
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            2050-7488
            2050-7496
            2016
            2016
            : 4
            : 17
            : 6185-6235
            10.1039/C5TA09911K
            © 2016
            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5TA09911K

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