Seventy Syrian golden hamsters were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, and 10 uninfected hamsters served as negative controls. Of the schistosome-infected hamsters, 10 served as positive controls (infected but untreated) and the rest (60 hamsters) received treatment. In 30 hamsters treatment was given 9 weeks after infection (before the appearance of renal amyloidosis) and in the other 30 it was given after the appearance of amyloid deposits, 15 weeks after infection. Each treatment group was subdivided into 3 groups (10 hamsters each) in which treatment was either antischistosomal alone, combined anti-schistosomal and colchicine, or colchicine alone. Eighteen weeks after infection half of the animals in each group were sacrificed, while the rest were sacrificed 24 weeks after infection. Kidney specimens were evaluated semiquantitatively for renal amyloid deposits. Significant reductions in renal amyloid deposits and proteinuria were observed when combined treatment was given. This was nearly complete with early treatment and only partial when treatment was given late. When colchicine was given alone, a partial but significant reduction in proteinuria with no recognizable effect on renal amyloid deposits was observed. We conclude that colchicine is effective for the prevention and cure of schistosome-related renal amyloidosis in golden hamsters.