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      Glycerol: Production, consumption, prices, characterization and new trends in combustion

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      Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

      Elsevier BV

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          Biodiesel production: a review1Journal Series #12109, Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.1

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            Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water.

            Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500 K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose -- which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals -- to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams.
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              Chemoselective catalytic conversion of glycerol as a biorenewable source to valuable commodity chemicals.

              New opportunities for the conversion of glycerol into value-added chemicals have emerged in recent years as a result of glycerol's unique structure, properties, bioavailability, and renewability. Glycerol is currently produced in large amounts during the transesterification of fatty acids into biodiesel and as such represents a useful by-product. This paper provides a comprehensive review and critical analysis on the different reaction pathways for catalytic conversion of glycerol into commodity chemicals, including selective oxidation, selective hydrogenolysis, selective dehydration, pyrolysis and gasification, steam reforming, thermal reduction into syngas, selective transesterification, selective etherification, oligomerization and polymerization, and conversion of glycerol into glycerol carbonate.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
                Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
                Elsevier BV
                13640321
                November 2013
                November 2013
                : 27
                :
                : 475-493
                Article
                10.1016/j.rser.2013.06.017
                © 2013

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