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      Isolated hypoaldosteronism as first sign of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita caused by a novel mutation in NR0B1/DAX-1 gene: a case report

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          X-linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (AHC) is a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency due to mutations in the NR0B1 gene, causing a loss of function of the nuclear receptor protein DAX-1. Adrenal insufficiency usually appears in the first 2 months of life, but can sometimes emerge during childhood. Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism is often associated later in life and patients may develop azoospermia. We describe an unusual onset of AHC started with isolated hypoaldosteronism as first and only sign of the disease.

          Case presentation

          A 18-days-old newborn presented with failure to thrive and feeding difficulties. Blood tests showed severe hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and hypochloremia. Renin was found over the measurable range and aldosterone was low whereas cortisol level was normal with a slightly increased ACTH. In the suspicion of Primary Hypoaldosteronism, correction of plasmatic electrolytes and replacement therapy with Fludrocortisone were promptly started. The subsequent evidence of low plasmatic and urinary cortisol and increased ACTH required the start of Hydrocortisone replacement therapy and it defined a clinical picture of adrenal insufficiency. Genetic analysis demonstrated a novel mutation in the DAX-1 gene leading to the diagnosis of AHC.


          AHC onset may involve the aldosterone production itself, miming an isolated defect of aldosterone synthesis. NR0B1/DAX-1 mutations should be considered in male infants presenting with isolated hypoaldosteronism as first sign of adrenal insufficiency.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The CARE Guidelines: Consensus-based Clinical Case Reporting Guideline Development

          Background: A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Primary Objective: Develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. Methods: We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) premeeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines, and (3) postmeeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case report guidelines. Results: This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist—a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. Conclusions: We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery.
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            Neonatal anthropometric charts: the Italian neonatal study compared with other European studies.

            This was a nationwide prospective study carried out in Italy between 2005 and 2007, involving 34 centers with a neonatal intensive care unit. The study reports the Italian Neonatal Study charts for weight, length, and head circumference of singletons born between 23 and 42 gestational weeks, comparing them with previous Italian data and with the most recent data from European countries. Single live born babies with ultrasound assessment of gestational age within the first trimester, and with both parents of Italian origin. Only fetal hydrops and major congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth were excluded. The reference set consists of 22,087 girls and 23,375 boys. At each gestational age, boys are heavier than girls by about 4%. Later-born neonates are heavier than firstborn neonates by about 3%. The effects of sex and birth order on length and head circumference are milder. No differences were observed between babies born in central-north Italy and southern Italy. A large variability emerged among European neonatal charts, resulting in huge differences in the percentage of Italian Neonatal Study neonates below the 10th centile, which is traditionally used to define small-for-gestational-age babies. In the last 2 decades prominent changes in the distribution of birth weight emerged in Italy and in the rest of Europe, in both term and preterm neonates. The existing European neonatal charts, based on more or less recent data, were found to be inappropriate for Italy. Until an international standard is developed, the use of national updated reference charts is recommended.
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              Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in subjects with DAX1 mutations.

              DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1; also known as NROB1, nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1) encodes a nuclear receptor that is expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, steroidogenic tissues (gonads, adrenals), the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and pituitary gonadotropes. Humans with DAX1 mutations develop an X-linked syndrome referred to as adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC). These boys typically present in infancy with adrenal failure but later fail to undergo puberty because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). The adrenal failure reflects a developmental abnormality in the transition of the fetal to adult zone, resulting in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. The etiology of HHG involves a combined and variable deficiency of hypothalamic GnRH secretion and/or pituitary responsiveness to GnRH resulting in low LH, FSH and testosterone. Treatment with exogenous gonadotropins generally does not induce spermatogenesis. Animal models indicate that DAX1 also plays a critical role in testis development and function. As a nuclear receptor, DAX1 has been shown to function as a transcriptional repressor, particularly of pathways regulated by other nuclear receptors, such as steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). In addition to reproductive tissues, DAX1 is also expressed at high levels in ES cells and plays a role in the maintenance of pluripotentiality. Here we review the clinical manifestations associated with DAX1 mutations as well as the evolving information about its function based on animal models and in vitro studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                +39 059 4225382 , lorenzo.iughetti@unimore.it
                BMC Med Genet
                BMC Med. Genet
                BMC Medical Genetics
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 June 2019
                4 June 2019
                : 20
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000121697570, GRID grid.7548.e, Pediatric Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of the Mother, Children and Adults, , University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, ; Via del Pozzo n. 71, 41124 Modena, Italy
                [2 ]Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire Grand Est, UM Pathologies Endocriniennes Rénales Musculaires et Mucoviscidose, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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