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      Ghrelin levels increase after pictures showing food.

      Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

      Young Adult, Adult, Male, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, blood, Leptin, Humans, administration & dosage, Ghrelin, Food, Evoked Potentials, Energy Intake, drug effects, Eating, Cues, metabolism, Blood Glucose, Appetite

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          Abstract

          The neuropeptide ghrelin is a major signal for food intake in various species including humans. After exogenous ghrelin administration, food intake and body weight increase in rodents. In normal human subjects, ghrelin administration increases self-rated appetite and calorie intake and prompts the imagination of favorite meals. It is unclear so far whether ghrelin levels are affected by external cues such as sight of food. We investigated the influence of pictures showing food compared to neutral pictures on ghrelin levels in young normal male subjects (n = 8). The study consisted of two consecutive sessions with a one-week interval. During each session, blood for later analysis of plasma concentrations of ghrelin was collected between 08:15 and 13:00 every 15 min (between 10:30 and 11:30 every 10 min). Breakfast and lunch was provided at 08:30 and 12:00, respectively. Fifty pictures were presented from 10:30 to 10:45 showing neutral images during the first session and food contents during the second session. As expected, ghrelin levels increased before each meal independent of the picture contents. In addition, ghrelin levels during the 30-min interval following the presentation of pictures with food increased significantly compared to the 30-min interval before this presentation (area under the curve (AUC): 188 % vs. 158 %, P < 0.05). The difference in the increases between the two picture conditions was also significant (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that sight of food elevates ghrelin levels in healthy volunteers.

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          Most cited references 31

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          A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans.

          The recently discovered orexigenic peptide ghrelin is produced primarily by the stomach and circulates in blood at levels that increase during prolonged fasting in rats. When administered to rodents at supraphysiological doses, ghrelin activates hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/agouti gene-related protein neurons and increases food intake and body weight. These findings suggest that ghrelin may participate in meal initiation. As a first step to investigate this hypothesis, we sought to determine whether circulating ghrelin levels are elevated before the consumption of individual meals in humans. Ghrelin, insulin, and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples drawn 38 times throughout a 24-h period in 10 healthy subjects provided meals on a fixed schedule. Plasma ghrelin levels increased nearly twofold immediately before each meal and fell to trough levels within 1 h after eating, a pattern reciprocal to that of insulin. Intermeal ghrelin levels displayed a diurnal rhythm that was exactly in phase with that of leptin, with both hormones rising throughout the day to a zenith at 0100, then falling overnight to a nadir at 0900. Ghrelin levels sampled during the troughs before and after breakfast correlated strongly with 24-h integrated area under the curve values (r = 0.873 and 0.954, respectively), suggesting that these convenient, single measurements might serve as surrogates for 24-h profiles to estimate overall ghrelin levels. Circulating ghrelin also correlated positively with age (r = 0.701). The clear preprandial rise and postprandial fall in plasma ghrelin levels support the hypothesis that ghrelin plays a physiological role in meal initiation in humans.
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            The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review.

            Leptin and ghrelin are two hormones that have been recognized to have a major influence on energy balance. Leptin is a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, suppressing food intake and thereby inducing weight loss. Ghrelin on the other hand is a fast-acting hormone, seemingly playing a role in meal initiation. As a growing number of people suffer from obesity, understanding the mechanisms by which various hormones and neurotransmitters have influence on energy balance has been a subject of intensive research. In obese subjects the circulating level of the anorexigenic hormone leptin is increased, whereas surprisingly, the level of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin is decreased. It is now established that obese patients are leptin-resistant. However, the manner in which both the leptin and ghrelin systems contribute to the development or maintenance of obesity is as yet not clear. The purpose of this review is to provide background information on the leptin and ghrelin hormones, their role in food intake and body weight in humans, and their mechanism of action. Possible abnormalities in the leptin and ghrelin systems that may contribute to the development of obesity will be mentioned. In addition, the potentials of leptin and ghrelin as drug targets will be discussed. Finally, the influence of the diet on leptin and ghrelin secretion and functioning will be described.
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              Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake.

              Despite substantial fluctuations in daily food intake, animals maintain a remarkably stable body weight, because overall caloric ingestion and expenditure are exquisitely matched over long periods of time, through the process of energy homeostasis. The brain receives hormonal, neural, and metabolic signals pertaining to body-energy status and, in response to these inputs, coordinates adaptive alterations of energy intake and expenditure. To regulate food consumption, the brain must modulate appetite, and the core of appetite regulation lies in the gut-brain axis. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake by the gastrointestinal system, focusing on gastric distention, intestinal and pancreatic satiation peptides, and the orexigenic gastric hormone ghrelin. We highlight mechanisms governing nutrient sensing and peptide secretion by enteroendocrine cells, including novel taste-like pathways. The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                22240720
                10.1038/oby.2011.385

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