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      Does Periadventitial Fat-Derived Nitric Oxide Play a Role in Improved Saphenous Vein Graft Patency in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The saphenous vein is commonly used for coronary artery bypass surgery but its patency is poor. Vascular damage occurs during conventional surgery. However, patency improves when the graft is harvested with minimal surgical trauma, partly due to preservation of vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and tissue sources of nitric oxide (NO), a factor possessing both dilatory and anti-proliferative properties. Apart from these grafts exhibiting an intact luminal endothelium they are harvested complete with a surrounding cushion of tissue, much of which is fat. Methods: Immunostaining for eNOS was performed on vein graft sections and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to identify eNOS mRNA and protein. NO synthase activity was measured using the citrulline assay. Results: Immunohistochemistry identified eNOS staining of vein graft segments, including dense staining of the cushion of perivascular fat and associated structures surrounding the vein. eNOS protein was confirmed in both the vein and surrounding fat by Western blot analysis. Using the citrulline assay, the perivascular fat and underlying vein possessed comparable NO synthase activity. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that perivascular fat-derived NO plays a beneficial role in saphenous veins harvested atraumatically and used as grafts in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Hypothesis: vasa vasorum and neovascularization of human coronary arteries. A possible role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

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            Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

            Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells.
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              Perivascular adipose tissue modulates vascular function in the human internal thoracic artery.

              Recent studies have shown that perivascular adipose tissue from the rat aorta secretes a substance that can dilate the aorta. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether this vasodilator is also present in human internal thoracic arteries. Vascular function of human internal thoracic arteries with and without perivascular adipose tissue was assessed with wire myography, and morphology was examined with light microscopy. The presence of perivascular adipose tissue attenuated the maximal contraction to U 46619 and the contraction to phenylephrine (1 micromol/L) by 37% and 24%, respectively. Transfer of the solution incubated with a perivascular adipose tissue-intact vessel (donor) to a vessel without perivascular adipose tissue (recipient) induced a significant relaxation (36%) in the recipient artery precontracted with phenylephrine. Transfer of incubation solution with perivascular adipose tissue alone also induced a relaxation response in the recipient vessel (37%). The relaxation of the recipient artery induced by the transfer of incubation solution from the donor (artery with intact perivascular adipose tissue or perivascular adipose tissue alone) was absent in vessels precontracted by KCl (60 mmol/L) and was prevented by calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium chloride, 1 mmol/L; iberiotoxin, 100 nmol/L), but not by the voltage-dependent potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (1 mmol/L) and the adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel blocker glibenclamide (10 micromol/L). Perivascular adipose tissue in human internal thoracic arteries releases a transferable relaxation factor that acts through the activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. Because perivascular adipose tissue is often removed in coronary artery bypass grafting, retaining perivascular adipose tissue might be helpful in reducing the occurrence of vasospasm of the graft vessels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                April 2007
                16 February 2007
                : 44
                : 3
                : 175-181
                Affiliations
                Departments of aClinical Biochemistry, bBiochemistry and cRheumatology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK; dDepartment of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden
                Article
                99833 J Vasc Res 2007;44:175–181
                10.1159/000099833
                17308436
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

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