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      Sevelamer and Other Anion-Exchange Resins in the Prevention and Treatment of Hyperphosphataemia in Chronic Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Sevelamer, or more precisely ‘sevelamer hydrochloride’, is a weakly basic anion-exchange resin in the chloride form that was introduced in 1997 for the treatment of the hyperphosphataemia of patients with end-stage renal failure, usually those on long-term haemodialysis. The rationale for this therapy was that sevelamer would sequester phosphate within the gastrointestinal tract, so preventing its absorption and enhancing its faecal excretion. Over the succeeding years, large numbers of patients have been treated with sevelamer, and it has fulfilled expectations in helping to control the hyperphosphataemia of end-stage renal failure. However, it is only one of many anion-exchange resins that could be used for this purpose, some of which are currently available for clinical use and are much less costly than sevelamer. Theoretical considerations suggest that some of these other resins might be at least as efficient as sevelamer in sequestering phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract. Neither sevelamer, nor any of these other agents, has been submitted to a proper metabolic balance study to measure the amount of phosphate sequestered by the resin in the bowel, and without this information it is impossible to judge which is the ideal resin for this purpose.

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          Most cited references 35

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          ESRD patients in 2004: global overview of patient numbers, treatment modalities and associated trends.

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            Projecting the number of patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States to the year 2015.

            The size of the prevalent ESRD population in the United States increased dramatically during the 1990s, from 196,000 in 1991 to 382,000 in 2000. Incidence also increased considerably during the same period, from 53,000 to 93,000 per year. If previous trends in ESRD incidence and prevalence continue, then current levels of health care resources that are devoted to the care of these patients will eventually be unable to meet the demand. This study discusses a Markov model developed to predict ESRD incidence, prevalence, and mortality to the year 2015 and incorporating expected changes in age/race distributions, diabetes prevalence, ESRD incidence, and probability of death. The model predicted that by 2015 there will be 136,166 incident ESRD patients per year (lower/upper limits 110,989 to 164,550), 712,290 prevalent patients (595,046 to 842,761), and 107,760 ESRD deaths annually (96,068 to 118,220). Incidence and prevalence counts are expected to increase by 44 and 85%, respectively, from 2000 to 2015 and incidence and prevalence rates per million population by 32 and 70%, respectively. The financial and human resources that will be needed to care for these patients in 2015 will be considerably greater than in 2005.
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              Polyelectrolyte gels in salt solutions

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2007
                September 2007
                03 August 2007
                : 107
                : 1
                : p17-p33
                Affiliations
                aCentre for Nephrology and Department of Physiology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, and bHarlandwater Services (author formerly of the Permutit Company Ltd.), Leeds, UK
                Article
                106568 Nephron Physiol 2007;107:p17–p33
                10.1159/000106568
                17675888
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 85, Pages: 1
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