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      Photocatalysts Based on Organic Semiconductors with Tunable Energy Levels for Solar Fuel Applications

      1 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 3
      Advanced Energy Materials
      Wiley

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          Electrochemical Photolysis of Water at a Semiconductor Electrode

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            A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light.

            The production of hydrogen from water using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal future energy source, independent of fossil reserves. For an economical use of water and solar energy, catalysts that are sufficiently efficient, stable, inexpensive and capable of harvesting light are required. Here, we show that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor. Contrary to other conducting polymer semiconductors, carbon nitride is chemically and thermally stable and does not rely on complicated device manufacturing. The results represent an important first step towards photosynthesis in general where artificial conjugated polymer semiconductors can be used as energy transducers.
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              Electrocatalysis for the oxygen evolution reaction: recent development and future perspectives

              We review the fundamental aspects of metal oxides, metal chalcogenides and metal pnictides as effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction. There is still an ongoing effort to search for sustainable, clean and highly efficient energy generation to satisfy the energy needs of modern society. Among various advanced technologies, electrocatalysis for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role and numerous new electrocatalysts have been developed to improve the efficiency of gas evolution. Along the way, enormous effort has been devoted to finding high-performance electrocatalysts, which has also stimulated the invention of new techniques to investigate the properties of materials or the fundamental mechanism of the OER. This accumulated knowledge not only establishes the foundation of the mechanism of the OER, but also points out the important criteria for a good electrocatalyst based on a variety of studies. Even though it may be difficult to include all cases, the aim of this review is to inspect the current progress and offer a comprehensive insight toward the OER. This review begins with examining the theoretical principles of electrode kinetics and some measurement criteria for achieving a fair evaluation among the catalysts. The second part of this review acquaints some materials for performing OER activity, in which the metal oxide materials build the basis of OER mechanism while non-oxide materials exhibit greatly promising performance toward overall water-splitting. Attention of this review is also paid to in situ approaches to electrocatalytic behavior during OER, and this information is crucial and can provide efficient strategies to design perfect electrocatalysts for OER. Finally, the OER mechanism from the perspective of both recent experimental and theoretical investigations is discussed, as well as probable strategies for improving OER performance with regards to future developments.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Advanced Energy Materials
                Adv. Energy Mater.
                Wiley
                1614-6832
                1614-6840
                October 2020
                September 02 2020
                October 2020
                : 10
                : 39
                : 2001935
                Affiliations
                [1 ]KAUST Solar Center (KSC) Physical Sciences and Engineering Division (PSE) Material Science and Engineering Program (MSE) King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Thuwal 23955‐6900 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry and Centre for Plastic Electronics Imperial College London Exhibition Road London SW7 2AZ UK
                [3 ]Department of Chemistry University of Oxford 12 Mansfield Road Oxford OX1 3TA UK
                Article
                10.1002/aenm.202001935
                cfa54f5a-3c02-486c-a7fa-a882a1e081d7
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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