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      Electrophysiology of the pancreatic β-cell

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      Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology

      Elsevier BV

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          Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches

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            Muscarinic activation of ionic currents measured by a new whole-cell recording method

             R Horn (1988)
            A new method is described as an alternative to whole-cell recording in order to prevent "wash-out" of the muscarinic response to acetylcholine (ACh) in rat lacrimal gland cells. The membrane of a cell-attached patch is permeabilized by nystatin in the patch pipette, thus providing electrical continuity between the pipette and the cytoplasm of the cell without the loss or alteration of cytoplasmic compounds necessary for the maintenance of the response to ACh. With normal whole-cell recording in these cells, the response to ACh, seen as the activation of Ca-activated K and Cl currents, lasts for approximately 5 min. With the nystatin method, the response is not diminished after 1 h. Nystatin, applied extracellularly, is shown to cause a rapid and reversible increase of membrane conductance to cations. In the absence of wash-out, we were able to obtain dose-response curves for the effect of ACh on Ca-activated K currents. An increase of [ACh] caused an increase in the K current, with apparent saturation at concentrations above approximately 1 microM ACh. The delay between ACh application and the activation of K current was inversely related to [ACh] and reached a minimum value of 0.7-1.0 s at high [ACh].
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              Severe hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in falciparum malaria.

              We studied the occurrence, clinical manifestations, and mechanism of hypoglycemia in patients with falciparum malaria in eastern Thailand. Hypoglycemia, which was often severe and recurrent, occurred in 17 patients, including 12 in a series of 151 patients with cerebral malaria. Thirty episodes were investigated. Plasma concentrations of insulin and C peptide were inappropriately high, and lactate and alanine concentrations were significantly higher than in patients with falciparum malaria who were normoglycemic (P less than 0.05). Sixteen patients had received quinine; plasma quinine and insulin concentrations were correlated at the time of hypoglycemia (P = 0.007). In seven healthy fasting volunteers intravenous quinine increased the mean plasma insulin concentration (+/- S.D.) from 8.9 +/- 3.1 to 17.1 +/- 8.4 mU per liter (P = 0.02) and reduced the mean plasma glucose concentration from 88 +/- 20 to 68 +/- 23 mg per deciliter (P = 0.002). Our observations indicate that in falciparum malaria quinine-induced insulin secretion may precipitate hypoglycemia, but other factors, including the large glucose requirements of the malaria parasites may also contribute. This important complication, associated with pregnancy and severe disease, must be excluded in all patients with falciparum malaria who have impaired or deteriorating consciousness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
                Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
                Elsevier BV
                00796107
                January 1989
                January 1989
                : 54
                : 2
                : 87-143
                Article
                10.1016/0079-6107(89)90013-8
                © 1989

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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