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      Impacts, Tolerance, Adaptation, and Mitigation of Heat Stress on Wheat under Changing Climates

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          Abstract

          Heat stress (HS) is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the production and quality of wheat. Rising temperatures are particularly threatening to wheat production. A detailed overview of morpho-physio-biochemical responses of wheat to HS is critical to identify various tolerance mechanisms and their use in identifying strategies to safeguard wheat production under changing climates. The development of thermotolerant wheat cultivars using conventional or molecular breeding and transgenic approaches is promising. Over the last decade, different omics approaches have revolutionized the way plant breeders and biotechnologists investigate underlying stress tolerance mechanisms and cellular homeostasis. Therefore, developing genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data sets and a deeper understanding of HS tolerance mechanisms of different wheat cultivars are needed. The most reliable method to improve plant resilience to HS must include agronomic management strategies, such as the adoption of climate-smart cultivation practices and use of osmoprotectants and cultured soil microbes. However, looking at the complex nature of HS, the adoption of a holistic approach integrating outcomes of breeding, physiological, agronomical, and biotechnological options is required. Our review aims to provide insights concerning morpho-physiological and molecular impacts, tolerance mechanisms, and adaptation strategies of HS in wheat. This review will help scientific communities in the identification, development, and promotion of thermotolerant wheat cultivars and management strategies to minimize negative impacts of HS.

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          Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

          Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress. The ROS comprises both free radical (O(2)(-), superoxide radicals; OH, hydroxyl radical; HO(2), perhydroxy radical and RO, alkoxy radicals) and non-radical (molecular) forms (H(2)O(2), hydrogen peroxide and (1)O(2), singlet oxygen). In chloroplasts, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) are the major sites for the production of (1)O(2) and O(2)(-). In mitochondria, complex I, ubiquinone and complex III of electron transport chain (ETC) are the major sites for the generation of O(2)(-). The antioxidant defense machinery protects plants against oxidative stress damages. Plants possess very efficient enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR; monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; guaicol peroxidase, GOPX and glutathione-S- transferase, GST) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, ASH; glutathione, GSH; phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and α-tocopherols) antioxidant defense systems which work in concert to control the cascades of uncontrolled oxidation and protect plant cells from oxidative damage by scavenging of ROS. ROS also influence the expression of a number of genes and therefore control the many processes like growth, cell cycle, programmed cell death (PCD), abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense, systemic signaling and development. In this review, we describe the biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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            Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination.

            Farmers and breeders have long known that often it is the simultaneous occurrence of several abiotic stresses, rather than a particular stress condition, that is most lethal to crops. Surprisingly, the co-occurrence of different stresses is rarely addressed by molecular biologists that study plant acclimation. Recent studies have revealed that the response of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses is unique and cannot be directly extrapolated from the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Tolerance to a combination of different stress conditions, particularly those that mimic the field environment, should be the focus of future research programs aimed at developing transgenic crops and plants with enhanced tolerance to naturally occurring environmental conditions.
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              Shifting the limits in wheat research and breeding using a fully annotated reference genome

              An annotated reference sequence representing the hexaploid bread wheat genome in 21 pseudomolecules has been analyzed to identify the distribution and genomic context of coding and noncoding elements across the A, B, and D subgenomes. With an estimated coverage of 94% of the genome and containing 107,891 high-confidence gene models, this assembly enabled the discovery of tissue- and developmental stage-related coexpression networks by providing a transcriptome atlas representing major stages of wheat development. Dynamics of complex gene families involved in environmental adaptation and end-use quality were revealed at subgenome resolution and contextualized to known agronomic single-gene or quantitative trait loci. This community resource establishes the foundation for accelerating wheat research and application through improved understanding of wheat biology and genomics-assisted breeding.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                March 2022
                March 04 2022
                : 23
                : 5
                : 2838
                Article
                10.3390/ijms23052838
                35269980
                cfcdfffa-e398-42e9-9a5c-a5c5f4707621
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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